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Jive—

4 beats/measure; 26 - 46 meas/min

The term "swing" music, referring to the driving beat of the rhythm section of a jazz band, is thought to have been coined by Jelly Roll Morton in his 1906 composition, Georgia Swing. In 1932, Duke Ellington wrote It Don't Mean a Thing (If It Ain't Got That Swing). By 1936, clarinetist Benny Goodman was being called the "King of Swing."

In the 1920s, swing dancing became big as young people moved to the jazzy, bluesy, big band music of the time, maybe most famously at Harlem's Savoy Ballroom. This athletic style of dancing came to be called the Lindy Hop, to commemorate Charles Lindbergh's solo flight or "hop" across the Atlantic in 1927. The Lindy of the '30s gave rise to Jitterbug in the '40s, to Rock and Roll in the '50s, and to East Coast Swing, West Coast Swing, Jive, Shag, and others.

In round dancing, the dominant swing rhythm is East Coast or triple swing. However, the figures that we use have mostly come from International-style, competition Jive, and most of our cue sheets identify these dances as "jives." Many figures are written to span a measure and a half with a rock, recover, and two triples. Another group of figures span two measures with a one, two, and a triple, one, two, and a second triple.

There has been some effort to distinguish between triple-swing and triple-jive. Swing is slower, and the triples travel more with a side/close, side and a count of 1&2. An "&" divides a beat in half, so the timing of a swing triple is half beat, half beat, whole beat. These triples might make you think of cha cha, but this is rock-and-roll music; the music doesn't say "cha-cha-cha." Swing can be quite easy-going, loose, and rag-doll-like. Jive is tighter, faster, bouncier, has more knee action, and the triples are more in place with a step/close, side and a count of 1a2, with sharper and briefer second step. The timing of a jive triple is 3/4 beat, 1/4 beat, whole beat.

Another view from a ballroom expert and for those who like the picky details says that both the swing and the jive triple really have the timing of 2/3 beat, 1/3 beat (of a triplet musical figure), whole beat. I don't know. My ear is not that good.

Both swing and jive make use of the Latin hip at the end of the triple: step/step, side/hip. Eight steps over six beats of music or ten steps over eight beats always puts you back with your lead foot free, so it's easy to move from figure to figure. Almost any figure can follow almost any other.

When the tempo gets faster, there isn't time to fit those triples in, and we switch to what is called "single swing." Each 6-count figure becomes, rock, recover, step, step (q,q,s,-; s,-,), four steps over the six beats of music. Less common is "double swing" with six steps or actions over the six beats: rock L, recover R, press L, step L; press R, step R, (q,q,q,q; q,q,) (of course, the woman begins with her right).

Figure Name, Roundalab Phase Level, & Timing

q=quick, 1 beat
s=slow, 2 beats
&=1/2 beat; a=1/4 beat

Steps and Actions That Make Up the Figure

Each description focuses on the man, with the woman's footwork in parenthesis. If a woman's step is not given, it is the natural opposite or follow of the man's. Help: basic dance positions and steps, actions, directions, and abbreviations. Non-standard punctuation: a comma separates two beats of music, a semi-colon marks the end of a measure, and a slash (/) indicates a split beat, two things occurring in a single beat.

Here are some sequences to help you visualize the figure in context.

Chasse

phase III

1a2

Step side/close, side, (this is a component of most figures - the triple)

Although this step pattern works fine with the slower swing music that is common in round dancing, with the faster tempo of true jive, you won't have time. If you are doing a fast jive, dance the triple almost in place. Keep softer knees and stab the ball of the foot into the floor -- stab, bum/bum, stab, bum/bum; -- little steps. You will exhaust yourself if you try to reach out for a real side step.

In addition to side chasses, we dance forward, back, forward and back locking, and turning chasses. During a turning chasse, we can turn gradually over the three steps of the triple, but our jive will be crisper if we concentrate most of the turn during the first or last step of the triple, spinning on the ball of the lead foot.

Scott's No Particular Place To Go begins with a balance (chasse) left and right; to a rock, recover, swivel two; two forward triples; swivel four; and four point steps;;
Continuous Chasse

phase IV

1a2a3a4

In a facing position, step side/close, sd/cl, sd/cl, sd; In When Will I Be Loved by the Moores, we start with lead feet free; cross in front unwind step side and close lead feet; continuous chasse to RLOD; whip throwaway facing wall;; to an american spin.
Basic Rock

phase III

123a4; 1a2

In a facing position, rock apart L (W apart R), recover, step side/close, side; side/close, side, We are doing a rock, recover, and chasse L and R. In Man, I Feel Like A Jive by the Rotscheids, there is change hands behind the back to face wall ~ rock recover to;; spanish arms twice ~ basic rock;;;; mooch;;;;;
Link

phase III

123a4;

Beginning in an open facing position, rock back L (woman back R), recover, and chasse small steps fwd/cl, fwd; to closed position. As the figure name implies, you are "linking" yourselves more tightly into closed position.

Note that the link is a one-measure figure.

In the Fishers' This Business of Love, part A begins with a link to a whip throwaway;; change left to right and a triple wheel to butterfly wall;;;;
Link Rock

phase III

123a4; 1a2

More common than the Link. In an open facing position, rock back L (woman back R), recover, and chasse small steps fwd/cl, fwd; sd/cl, sd, to closed position. Again, you are "linking" yourselves more tightly into closed position, but this time you end up with lead feet free.

This figure can turn up to 1/2 RF to end in CP facing wall unless otherwise cued. For instance, you might begin in left open facing position LOD and link to CP facing wall.

In Won't You Come Out and Play by the Weisses, there is a fallaway throwaway ~ neck slide ~ rolling off the arms ~ link rock;;;;;;;; change places right to left ~ change hands behind the back;;;
Fallaway Rock

phase III

123a4; 1a2

In a facing position, rock back on lead feet to semi-closed position, recover to face, sd/cl, sd; sd/cl, sd, The Lawsons' Pink Cadillac has a throwaway to line; change left to right and fallaway rock;;; change right to left to handshake and change left to right to tandem;;; to a catapult and lindy catch;;;,,
Fallaway Rock in 4

1234;

In a facing position, rock back to semi-closed position, recover to face, sd, recover;

The name of this figure could be misleading. The standard fallaway rock is 1 1/2 measures, and this one is only 1 meas. But the name follows in the tradition of "new yorker in 4" in cha, and in a dance the next cue will come quickly to tell you not to linger the additional half measure.


Fallaway Throwaway

phase III

123a4; 1a2

In closed position facing wall, rock back L (W bk R) to semi-closed position, recover, dance sd/cl, sd (W triple turning LF to left open facing position) man facing LOD; sd/cl, sd (W bk/cl sd),

The "rock, recover" part of this is the fallaway. The two triples make up the throwaway part.

In the Bonds' Lefty Louie, there is a change left to right and change hands behind the back;;; spanish arms to closed position and fallaway throwaway;;; and two slow and 4 quick chicken walks;;
Throwaway

phase III

1a23a4;

In SCP facing LOD, step sd L/cl R, sd L turning up to 1/4 LF (W triple turning up to 1/2 LF to left open facing position: R/L, R) man facing LOD, sd/cl, sd (W bk/cl sd);

In a Throwaway Overturned, the lady dances 2 chasses turning LF to end in a figurehead position. At the end of the measure, both are facing LOD. The man's lead for the overturn is gentle CW rotation of the lead hand as if to a hammerlock behind the lady's back.
In Hello Mary Lou by the Crapos, the ending begins with jive chasses left and right; rock recover swivel 2; throwaway; open break 1 & hold;

In My Baby Just Cares For Me by Clements, there is flicks into break;;;;; throwaway overturned; lady swivel to chicken walks 2 slo; 4 qk; chg R to L.
Slingshot Throwaway

123a4; 1a2

In an L-position, with the man facing wall and the woman facing LOD, the man lunges to the side L and extends his arms to lead the woman to rock back R. There is an elastic feeling between them. Both recover onto their trail feet. During the two triples, step sd L/cl R, sd L turning up to 1/4 LF (W triple turning up to 1/2 LF to left open facing position: R/L, R) man facing LOD; step sd R/cl L, sd R (W bk L/cl R sd L),

Of course, the first two steps constitute the "slingshot." We stretch apart and then recoil together into the throwaway. May be done in other facing directions.


Slingshot Runaway and Back

1234; 1234;

In an L-position with the man facing wall and the woman facing LOD, the man lunges to the side L and extends his arms to lead the woman to rock back R (this is pulling back the slingshot). Then both recover to their trail feet (releasing the slingshot). This move gives a little more propulsion or drama to the next figure—in this case a runaway—than a tamer entry, such as a fallaway rock recover. Following this entry, we might expect jive triples, but this figure is even-count. The man steps small fwd L keeping lead hands joined and leading the woman to turn LF (W fwd R spinning LF one full turn to face LOD), small fwd R continuing to face wall (W fwd L); bk L (W fwd R swiveling 1/2 RF), bk R (W fwd L toward RLOD), step L (W fwd R turning RF), step R (W sd L) to an L-position man facing wall again;

The man is dancing pretty much in place, facing the wall, while the woman is running in front of him to his left and then back to her starting position again. May be done in other facing directions.

In Beale Street Blues by the Lillefields, there is spanish arms to face wall - right to left man face LOD;;; kick whip;;;;; slingshot runaway and back twice;;;; start a slingshot right to left - left to right;;;
Hip Bump

1234; 1a2
In left open facing position M fcg wall rock apart L (W apt R), recover R, fwd L trng 3/8 RF (W LF) to a back-to-back V-position lowering slightly, rise and bump M's L & W's R hips [no wt chg]; chasse away R/L, R trng 3/8 LF to face ptnr and wall again,

Sole Tap

phase IV

1234; 1a2
In left open facing position M fcg wall rock apart L (W apt R), recover R, fwd L trng 3/8 RF to a back-to-back V-position, bend R knee to tch M's R shoe sole to W's L shoe sole behind L leg and raise free arm to touch M's R and W's L palms in a "high-five"-like gesture; chasse away R/L, R trng 3/8 RF to face ptnr and wall again,

Arm work is optional. May begin in any facing direction.

Left Turning Fallaway

phase III

123a4; 1a2

In a facing position, rock back L (woman back R) to semi-closed, recover R to face, side/close, side turning LF 1/4 sort of like starting a Pickup; and side/close, side again turning LF 1/4, The full figure makes a turn of 1/2, perhaps from facing wall to facing center.
Right Turning Fallaway

phase III

123a4; 1a2

In a facing position, rock back L (woman back R) to semi-closed, recover R to face, side/close, side turning RF 1/4 sort of like starting a Maneuver; and side/close, side again turning RF 1/4, The full figure makes a turn of 1/2 perhaps from facing wall to facing center.

Again, we can distinguish between jive and swing styling. The above is more "swingy."A more "jivey" rendering concentrates the turn on beat 4. During the first chasse, step/step in place, and then step, lift, and pivot 1/2 to face center. Do the second chasse facing center. If the tempo is fast, don't try to progress on the chasses. Stay low and jab in place. Rise for the pivot. Lower again for the second chasse -- jab/jab, jab.

A common sequence is to begin in closed position facing wall and do a right turning fallaway twice back to your starting position;;;

In Jailhouse King by Woodruff, facing ptnr & LOD, we change L to R w/ continuous chasse;; right trng fallaway to COH ; ,, change R to L to RLOD , ;; chg hnds behind the back to LOD ; ,,
Right Turning Triple

phase III

1a23a4;

There is no rock, recover to fallaway position here. In a facing position, step side/close, side turning RF 1/4 sort of like starting a Maneuver; and side/close, side again turning RF 1/4.
Pretzel Turn

phase IV

123a4; 1a234; 1a23a4;

In closed position facing wall, rock back L (woman bk R) to fallaway position, recover R to face, step sd/cl, sd turning 1/2 RF (woman 1/2 LF) keeping lead hands joined; chasse L/R, L turning up to 1/4 more, You might be side to side both facing line with your lead hands joined behind your backs and your trail arms extended forward, but I think most will be in a V-position, man facing line and center and woman facing line and wall. This gives the next step a contra look. On beat 3 of the second measure, cross the L in front of the R (woman XRIF of L) with a little lunging action and extend the trail hand forward with palms down. Or you might mime a "cool" snapping of the third finger in time to the lunge. Recover R beginning to turn LF (woman unwind RF); step sd L/cl R, sd L turning to face partner still holding lead hands, sd R/cl L, sd R to closed position again;

This is a progressive wrapping into your lead arms as you roll down line and then unwrapping as you roll to reverse again. The figure can begin in other positions, such as semi or butterfly, and it can progress in any direction.

Sometimes a choreographer will insert two rocks or lunges in the middle of this figure (see example to right), rather than the standard one rock (the arm work can be even "cooler" then).

In Calendar Girl by the Rotscheids, the dance begins with a link rock - pretzel turn;;; double rock; unwrap the pretzel; double rock; jive chasse left and right - change left to right;;;
Triple Pretzel Turn

123a4; 1a234; 1&234; 1&234; 1a23a4;
This is a pretzel turn interrupted by two additional "lunge, recover, chasses," one to LOD and then a second one to RLOD, before we do the "real" lunge to LOD and unwrap.

In closed position facing wall, rock back L (woman bk R) to fallaway position, recover R to face, step sd/cl, sd turning 1/2 RF (woman 1/2 LF) keeping lead hands joined; chasse L/R, L turning up to 1/4 more. You might be side to side both facing line with your lead hands joined behind your backs and your trail arms extended forward, but I think most will be in a V-position, man facing line and center and woman facing line and wall. This gives the next step a contra look.

On beat 3 of the second measure, we begin the first of our two "interruptions." Cross the L in front of the R (woman XRIF of L) with a little lunging action and extend the trail hand forward with palms down. Or snap your fingers, or make any other cool hand gesture that occurs to you. Try to match the beat and match your partner. Recover R beginning to turn LF (woman turn RF), and chasse L/R, L, in a back-to-back position, moving toward RLOD. This feels like you are continuing your pretzel turn, but remember, this is an "interruption." Don't unwrap. Only turn enough to be positioned back-to-back, and as you do this chasse, change hands, taking trail hands. Now dance your second "interruption." Cross the R in front of the L (woman XLIF of R), lunge toward RLOD, and perform your hand gesture with the lead hands toward RLOD. Recover L trng a little RF to back-to-back position, change to lead hands joined, and chasse R/L, R toward LOD.

Now, we can finish the pretzel turn. Cross the L in front of the R (woman XRIF of L) with a little lunging action and extend the trail hand forward with palms down. Recover R beginning to turn LF (woman unwind RF), and chasse sd L/cl R, sd L turning to face partner still holding lead hands, sd R/cl L, sd R to closed position again.
In How Lucky Can One Guy Be by Preskitt, we are facing partner and COH. We dance a link to dbl whip trn w/ continuous chasse to face wall;;; triple pretzel turn;;;;; lindy catch;; progressive rock 4;
Chasse Roll

phase V

123a4; 1a23a4

This figure is like the first half of a pretzel turn, but you don't maintain the lead hand-hold and there are three triples instead of two. In closed position facing wall rock back to fallaway position, recover to face, step sd L/cl R, sd L turning RF 1/2 to back-to-back position (woman steps sd R/cl L, sd R turning LF); sd R/cl L, sd R turning 1/2 to face, sd L/cl R, sd L; Often you will be cued to chasse roll back toward reverse.

Or, you might think of these triples as something like a two-step face to face, back to back, and then around to another face to face.

May begin in other positions and may progress in opposite direction with opposite footwork and turn.

In Do You Love Me by Eum & Hadley, we do a triple wheel to handshake COH;; ,, miami special ,;; chasse roll LOD;; rock & chasse R; open break hold recover; merengue 4;
Turnstile

phase VI

123a4; 1234; 1a2

I'd better start this with a disclaimer. We've never danced the standard figure, and every description we've heard or read is different from the previous one. But I want to be complete, and it is a Roundalab Standard. Let me try and maybe you will be good enough to give me a critique.

Start in a handshake position, perhaps facing wall. In the first measure, rock back L (woman bk R), recover R (woman rec L), chassé L/R, L beginning to turn LF and releasing handshake for right-wrist-to-right-wrist contact, woman's wrist on top (woman chassés R/L, R and turns a little to the right); At the end of the first measure the man is facing line and wall, the woman line and center.

During the second measure, the man raises his right arm a little to continue the woman's turn, he completes his 1/2 LF turn and steps R (woman steps L) to finish that step in a back-to-back position. Man will touch left wrist to woman's right wrist now and press down a little to turn her. Both turn 1/2 to face, and man steps side L (woman sd R). On the third beat, he uses his right wrist to press down on her left and turns 1/2 LF and steps side R (woman turns 1/2 RF and steps side L). Finally, he uses his left wrist again. Both turn 1/2 to face and step side. Of course, this is the actual "turnstile" movement. We are rolling to reverse in four steps and making two complete revolutions.

The revolutions I am describing above are individual half-spins — spin and face away, spin and face partner, and so on. In addition, you might be turning as a couple to the left, so each of those four steps is not toward RLOD but on a small arc, the circumference of of a circle on which the two of you are standing. The choreography will have to specify, but at the end of measure two, you could be facing partner and LOD, or you could have turned as a couple 1/2 and so be facing partner and COH.

We end the figure with a side chassé R/L, R (woman L/R, L).

There might be a temptation to make these turns double underarm turns, but you don't join hands. Keep your arms stiff and down. Each lead by the man stays below the horizontal — it's just a nudge. Think "penguin arms." As Meredith and I play with this in the kitchen, we seem to contact elbows as often as wrists. The figure does seem to flow more smoothly if you stay close.

Another feature of styling that is important is sway toward your partner during measure two. As you take the first step, incline toward your partner and touch man's right shoulder to woman's left. As you turn the turnstile, roll across the top of her shoulders, back-to-back, and touch man's left to woman's right. Engage his left and her right arms, roll, and engage his right and her left arms, leaning toward partner. This feels odd. Normally, we try to keep our toplines apart.

We have the option to turn more than two full turns. You might begin with a rock apart, recover, and chassé with a half turn for the man and a full turn for the woman to end in Woman's Tandem, both facing COH. Then the "turnstile" would involve L/L wrists to Tandem wall, R/R wrists to Woman's Tandem COH, and repeat. The last chassé would involve a half turn for the man and a second full turn for the woman. If you include rotation for the couple, again in measure two, you would gradually turn LF to end facing LOD or even COH before the final chassé and spin.

Finally, let us note that at full jive tempo, that turnstile is really fast. Chris and Terri Cantrell described some choreography that they once did in which the middle "turnstile" action was done at half speed — each step used two beats for a total of two measures. That would certainly take some of the violence out of the figure.

As I say, we have never encountered the standard figure in a dance, and we have only just been introduced to the "modified" Turnstile in the Blackfords' Cat Daddy. This one begins in Left Open Facing Position with a rock apart and recover to three turning chassés, man turning RF and woman turning LF, 1/2 turn on each triple, progressing straight toward RLOD to a continuous chassé (123a4; 1a23a4; 1a2a3a4;).

The form of the Turnstile is certainly not fixed. It might even be better to think of it as an action that can be used in lots of different ways in different figure combinations, much as a Spiral is used.

Change Right to Left

phase III

123a4; 1a2

Blending to semi-closed position facing LOD, rock bk L (W bk R), rec, sd/cl, sd beginning to turn LF (W dances sd/cl, sd, spinning RF under his lead hand on the third step of this first triple). We end with a fwd/cl, fwd (W bk/cl, bk) to left open facing position DLC.

Note that the link here is a fallaway rock, recover, hinging open to SCP. In general, this "hinging link" leads the lady to move to the man's left. A link that rocks straight apart, recover leads the lady to move to his right, as in a change left to right (below), neck slide, rolling off the arms, or lindy catch.

Of course, we can begin and end in other positions and in other facing directions, and we often under- or over-turn the figure -- for instance, the man might start facing wall and end facing LOD or COH.
In Big Man Jive by Molitoris & Gareis, part A begins with a right to left and left to right;;; to a rock apart recover kick ball change to butterfly; windmill twice;;; and progressive rock 4 to semi;
Change Left to Right

phase III

123a4; 1a2

Perhaps in left open facing position wall, rock apart L, rec, sd/cl, sd turning RF (W apt R, rec L, fwd/cl, fwd trng LF under his lead hand); sd/cl, sd (W sd L/cl R, sdL) to left open facing position DRC,

The change right to left and left to right are persistent problems for many. We are so used to facing the wall and doing a right to left that if a left to right is cued, we either thoughtlessly do the right to left and end up facing line when we should be facing reverse, or we panic and stand there -- "left, right, what!" So, be prepared to focus in on the details of these cues:
  • Listen to the first directional word. The man can focus on the word right (as in right to left) and know that he needs to do a fallaway rock, moving to his right. This will aim the partnership in the proper direction and get the woman moving toward the man's left side. If he hears left first, he rocks straight back with a basic rock, not moving right but staying a bit to the left of the lady. As he raises his lead arm, she will be directed to his right.
  • Or the woman can hear the word right and know she will turn right-face under lead hands. If the first directional word is left, she will turn left-face. These directions guide her to the proper side of the man.
  • Or the man can focus on the second directional word (as in right to left) and take her to that side. Left -- direct her past your left shoulder and toward your left hand. Right -- direct her toward your right side.
We can't just hear these two cues and think generically, "okay this is where we sort of do an underarm turn and change sides." We have to hear that there are two different cues and then dance different figures.
In Night Train by the Lawsons, part A begins with a chasse left and right; change right to left and left to right;;; and then a change hands behind the back;,,
Miami Special

phase IV

123a4; 1a2

This one is a bit like a Left to Right with a man's head loop. Start in a right handshake position facing partner. Rock apart L (woman R), recover R, step fwd L/R, L turning RF 3/4 and lead woman to turn LF under joined R hands and put joined right hands over man's head; then step side R/L, R allowing her R hand to slide down his L arm ending in left open position, If you begin facing wall, you will both end facing line with the man on the outside of the circle. In Wake Me Up Before You Go-Go by the Robinsons, there is a change right to left to handshake – miami special;;; rock to step tap; step tap step tap; triple to face,
She Go, He Go

phase V

123a4;1a2

In left open facing position facing partner and wall, rock apart L (woman apart R), recover R, fwd L/cl R, fwd L turning 1/8 RF and turning woman 1/2 LF under lead hands; step fwd R turning 5/8 LF under lead hands/close L, side R to end facing partner and center,

In essence, she does a LF underarm turn on the first triple and he does a LF underarm turn on the second triple. May begin in butterfly. May be done in other orientations.

In A Brand New Me by Hoffman we dance a throwaway to LOD; lindy catch;; she go he go 2X;;; link rock to CP wall ; ,, and rock rec to face ,;
Chopper

phase VI

1a23a4; 1a23a4;

Start in handshake position facing partner. This is a two-measure figure consisting of four triples. First, the man triples in place and leads the woman in a full turn LF under joined right hands. The hands go up and down in a complete CCW circle over your heads and back to low handshake. He steps in place L/R, L, and she spins in place R/L, R, During beats 3 & 4, she steps in place L/R, L; and he spins RF R/L, R; under joined right hands. The second measure repeats the first.

This is the Roundalab description. URDC describes a three-measure chopper that begins and ends for both with a rock, recover.

I have also seen a one-measure "chopper ending" and a one-measure "chopper 4" that was not only done on an even count (man steps L, R, L, R; and woman spins on step 1 and man on step 3), but the woman spins RF and the man LF. So there is some variability out there.

The Worlocks' Boogie With Me has a slow side break to a handshake; chopper; american spin both spin to continuous chasse;;
Change Hands Behind Back

phase III

123a4; 1a2

Rock bk, rec, fwd/cl, fwd trn lf she rf he changes her r hand to his r; bk/cl, sd to face and change hand back to his l, (half turn for eack) In the Easterdays' Nosey Joe, there is an american spin to change hands behind back;;; rock to 4 dig steps and change hands behind back;;;; 2 sailor shuffles; merengue 8;;
Stop and Go

phase V

123a4; 123a4;

In left open facing position facing wall, rock back L (woman bk R), recover R raising lead hand to lead woman to turn 1/2 LF, fwd L/ close R, fwd L and catch woman with right hand on her back; fwd R (woman bk L), recover L (woman recover R), bk R (woman fwd L beginning 1/2 RF turn/close L, back R to end in starting position; Note that the woman turns 1/2 LF and then 1/2 RF. The man does not turn. May be done with other facing directions. In Stagger Lee by McGee, there are chicken walks 4 qk; throwaway LOD; stop & go;; whip throwaway;; whip turn;;
Side Breaks

phase IV

1a2a3a4a;

In facing position, lead feet free, step side L with a pushing action (woman sd R)/sd R, close L/cl R, sd L/sd R, cl L/cl R; Often the hands go out with the feet and back to the body as the feet come in.

It's a little difficult to keep this figure from becoming a pair of "jumping jacks." Try not to move up and down, but keep the upper body still.

These are also known as "Quick Side Breaks." Slow Side Breaks are danced a/slow, -, a/slow, -; and you might hear cued Side Breaks, two slows and four quicks (two measures total).


In In, Out Out

1a - 3a -;

In a facing position a little apart from partner, lift slightly and step forward L (woman fwd R) toward partner/close R, -, lifting again bk L (woman bk R) away from parther/cl R, -; In Shout by the Worlocks, there is a vine 3 & flick; side two-step to open; thru side close to butterfly; in in, out out; swivel walk 3 to semi; kick step twice to face; and a side two-step;

(The above sequence is really step-cued two-step, but the dance is a wonderful, bouncy single-swing jive.)

Flea Hops

phase VI

a; 1a2a3a4a; 1a2

Start in open, shadow, or tandem position, with L foot free for both. On the last part of the previous count, hop on the right foot by lifting the left knee up and to the left. This action will cause the hop and a slight slide to the left. Close L to R on the "1" count. Repeat this action with the right knee: hop/close. On the third count, hop on the right sliding left/tap L toe to R foot, hop & slide on R/close L to R; On the "a" of 4, hop on left sliding a little to the right/tap R, hop L/close R,

When hopping on the R there is slight sway right and when hopping on the L there is slight sway left. May be done with same or opposite footwork.


Jive Walks

phase III

123a4; 1a2

Rock back to semi-closed position, recover, fwd/fwd, fwd; fwd/fwd, fwd,

If you want to make this figure more "jivey" and less "swingy," take out the progression and focus more on lift and on body rotation.As you triple with your lead feet, rise and turn toward your partner. In place, jab/jab step/swivel to face. As you triple with the trail feet, swing the right hip (W left hip) thru and turn a little away -- triple up and face, triple down toward line. Often, we do jive walks and then swivel walks. This jive styling gives the jive walks the look of swivel walks -- with triples, we are swiveling toward partner and away.

In You Make My Pants Want to Get Up and Dance by Hixson we change L to R to wall; ,, link rock , ;; SCP dbl rock to ;; jive walks ; swivel walk 4 ; throwaway LOD ; stop & go w/ dbl stop action;;; chg L to R to wall ; ,,
Swivel Walks

phase III

ss; or qqqq;

In semi-closed position, step forward on the lead foot and lead the woman to swivel just a little LF, -, fwd on trail feet and woman swivels RF, -; With each step, she turns her knee in a little and steps one step in front of the other. With your frame, you are rotating her just a little: left, right, left, right. Both could swivel: in, out, in, out. You could do this figure in open position.

As with the jive walks above, up-down motion is a jivey sort of addition. The man steps down line, rising, and leading strongly with the left shoulder. She steps, rises, and turns sharply toward him. Then with the trail foot, he crosses in front and falls or relaxes a little. She steps forward, falls, and turns toward line. Repeat. The man is almost doing a Limp. The woman is doing the swivel walks.

In the Lillefields' Got a Brand New Bag, part B begins with two triples down line; and then the cue is "up down swivel 4;" to a throwaway;
Chicken Walks

phase IV

qqqq;

In open facing position, line of dance, lead hands joined. The man walks backwards four steps, and he leads the woman to walk forward, gently pulling her and causing her to swivel a bit with each step. She steps with her right and swivels the foot a bit right face, turning the toes out or really turning the heel in, then step left and swivel left on ball of foot so toes point out, and so on. He leads her to make these little swivelling turns by turning her lead hand left and then right. He turns the hand in the direction that he wants her to swivel. I think most men dance this figure with soft knees and maybe a kind of "coaxing" attitude: "Come on, baby." and the woman leans back away from him with something of a resisting attitude: "No, I'm not giving in easily." She might be a little haughty. You have to play around with that sort of styling, but do try for some kind of "attitude." Don't just walk.

Chicken Walk
In the McGees' Stagger Lee, there are four quick chicken walks; throwaway; stop & go;; whip throwaway;; whip turn to semi-closed position;;

In Man In Love by the Hiltons, there is a fallaway throwaway ~ rock recover;; chicken walks QQS twice;; kick ball change ~ link rock to semi;;

Rooster Walks

qqqq;

In left open facing position, stand tall, puff out chest, and strut forward L (woman bk R), fwd R, fwd L, fwd R;

Think dominant "cocky" thoughts. Push her ahead of you— relentlessly, inexorably.

In the Hurds’ Fine Brown Frame, interlude 2 consists of chicken walks 2 slow and 4 quick;; rooster walks 2 slow and 4 quick;; and repeat;;;;
Turkey Walks

qqqq;


In a left shadow position both facing the wall and no hands joined, hands down and slightly out from the body, palms forward and fingers splayed, shake or slightly rotate hands back and forth in a "jazz hands" sort of way, and step sd L toward LOD (W sd R to RLOD), cl R, sd L, cl R;

Of course, the hand styling may vary. Another common style is to put the right hand on your hip and "jazz" only the left hand.

Turkey walk 6 or 8 is also common (e.g., qqqq; qqqq;)

Camel Walks

ss;
In jive, this figure is a shifting in place with knee action, sort of shifting your toes in the desert sands. In a facing position with hands on hips, veer the left knee in and then out in a CCW motion (Wmirrors with right knee in a CW motion), and then take weight, veer the right knee in and then out in a CW motion (W mirrors), and take weight;

May be done in 4 quick steps (qqqq;) or in other timings.
In Your Feet's Too Big by the Scherrers, there is a change left to right and rock rec to face wall;; camel walks 2 slo 4 qk;; link rock; ,, fallaway throwaway both face wall ,;; turkey walk 8;; link to a whip turn;;

In I'll Be Uptown by the Hiltons, there are 2 fwd triples; swivel walk 4; point steps twice;; throwaway; camel walk 4 qk; sailor shuffle twice;;
Boogie Walk

ss; ss;

The woman might draw the R foot to L rise on the L pushing the body forward as the R moves fwd & circles 1/8 CW to end diag fwd on ball of foot then whole foot lowering into the knee, -, draw L to R rise on R ft pushing body fwd as L ft moves fwd & circles 1/8 CCW to end diag fwd on ball of ft then whole ft lowering into knee, -; repeat;

May be done by the man. May begin with either foot.


Dig Steps

qqqq;

With the lead foot raised, toe pointing down, lower the foot to the floor as though you are thinking of digging your toe into the sand on a beach and step small forward, repeat with the trail foot, lead foot, and trail foot again; In Fine Brown Frame by the Hurds, there is a man's dig step 8 woman's boogie walk 4 to butterfly wall;; progressive rock 4 to SCP; to a throwaway;
Rock the Boat

phase III

1,2,

In semi position, line of dance, lead foot free, step forward with a straight knee and leaning torso forward. Then close trail foot with soft knee and leaning torso backwards. Keep your eyes up. May be begun with trail foot. Often done twice.

In Rock 'N Roll Heart by the Cantrells, the dance begins with a rock the boat; kick twice, back 2; to a fallaway right face turn twice;;;

Progressive Rock

phase III

1234;

In butterfly position, rock apart on lead feet, recover on trail crossing a little in front and progressing down line, rock apart again progressing, recover; May also begin with the trail feet and progress to reverse.
Point Step

phase III

1,2,

Point forward with the outside edge of the foot in contact with the floor. Then take a small forward step with that same foot. May be done with either foot and in almost any position.

Often, we do a series of point steps in BFLY or SCP. In such a series, you may shape and look in the direction of the pointing outside foot (e.g., LOD) and then shape toward partner and look away from the pointing inside foot (e.g., RLOD).

In the Woodruffs' Rock Right, part B has a swivel walk 4; to 4 point steps;; throwaway; and chicken walks;;
Shag Step

phase III

1234; 12

The shag is a combination of steps and side kicks and is not well defined in round dancing. You might be facing and step side on the lead foot, rise on that foot and kick the trail foot to the side, close the trail, rise and kick the lead; close the lead, and step in place, You could also start with the trail feet or use same footwork. May be done in any position.

A form used by Hoffman (see right) is step in place LRL (W RLR) kick the trail foot to the side; repeat with the trail foot; [the count here is 1234; 1234;]
In Sunshine Quickstep by Hoffman, we step hop 4X;; walk face; sd draw close; shag step 2X;; side close 2X; walk PU; hitch 6;;
American Spin

phase IV

123a4; 1a2

With lead hands joined, rock apart L (W apt R), recover, sd/cl. On this beat 3 of the first measure, give a little tuck with lead hand, moving it between your bodies and turning the woman just a little LF. On beat 4, finish the chasse by stepping side L (W sd R and spins full RF to face). Finish with a chasse sd/cl, sd, In Nosey Joe by Easterday we face partner and wall for chicken walks moving toward COH;; american spin ; ,, chg hnds bhnd bk , ;; rock to 4 dig stps ; ,, chg hnds bhnd bk , ;;
Passing American Spin

123a4; 1a2

Again with lead hands joined, facing line of dance (woman facing reverse), rock apart L (woman apart R), recover R turning LF, step L/R, L leading woman to step forward R/L, R spinning RF a full turn to face the man and wall; The man dances one more triple: R/L, R turning LF to face reverse, and the woman dances fwd L/R, L turning LF to face man and line of dance. End in left open facing position, reverse line of dance.
American Spin Both Spin

phase IV

123a4; 1a2
With lead hands joined, rock apart, recover palm-to-palm, sd/cl tucking a little RF (W LF), side spinning LF (W RF) full turn to face; sd/cl, sd,
In Talkin' 'bout That River by Bingham & Oren, there are some foxtrot cross points with snaps to left open facing position COH ;; american spin both spin ; ,, she go he go wall , ;; shoulder shove ; ,,
American Back Spin

123a4; 1a2
In left open facing position LOD rock apt L (W apt R), recover R releasing hands and spinning 1/2 RF to turn back on lady (W recovers and does not turn). We are in man's tandem RLOD. Triple in place LRL and on 3rd stp of the triple spin 1/2 LF to face partner again (W triple in place putting her R hnd on his back and pushing off on her 3rd stp to spin a full turn RF. The man triples in place RLR (W LRL completing her turn to face. Endleft open facing position LOD.

May be danced in other facing directions.
In Runaround Sue by Rumble part A begins with a chasse L&R; fallaway throwaway ; ,, american back spin , ;; chg places L to R ; ,,
Simple Spin

phase VI

1,2,

In left open position, lead hands joined, step in place L, bringing left hand down, turning LF to face partner, and leading her to step in place R and spin in place RF. Release hands during her spin. On the second beat, the man steps in place R as the woman steps L and completes her full spin. Rejoin lead hands to end in left open facing position. In the Easterdays' Boogie Blues, part A has you in open postion facing reverse for four point steps;; triple away and together; simple spin and change places left to right to a handshake facing line;; and then a passing american spin to left open facing position reverse;,,
Windmill

phase IV

123a4; 1a2

In butterfly position, rock apart, recover, fwd/cl, fwd woman sd/cl, sd turning LF 1/4 with arms out tilted into the turn lead arms low; sd/cl, sd turning another quarter with arms out but more level, Often repeated back to starting position, or do a windmill over and a spanish arms back.
Sugar Wheel

123a4; 1a2

The windmill (above) can be thought of as a "reverse" or left-turning windmill, and at a first approximation, the sugar wheel is a "natural" or right-turning windmill. However, the styling of the sugar wheel is sharper than that of a windmill. Where the 1/2 turn of a windmill is begun on the recover step and is then distributed over both triples, the 1/2 turn of a sugar wheel is designed to occur on the third step of the first triple only.

Specifically, in butterfly position M facing wall, we rock apart on lead feet, recover R (W rec L), and small triple adjusting to butterfly banjo with pressure thru the lead hands causing both partners to spin 1/2 RF on the last step of that triple ending in butterfly sidecar position M facing COH (W fcg wall). Finish the figure with a small triple to face partner.

In Kansas City by the Rumbles, we do a triple wheel to face wall;; ,, spanish arms twice,;; ,, basic rock,;; sugar wheel twice;;; into a change left to right to face center.
Shoulder Shove

phase IV

123a4; 1a2

In facing position with lead hands joined rk apart L (woman bk R), rec R turning RF (woman LF), sd/cl, sd gently pushing left shoulder to her right shoulder; turn to face bk/cl, bk drawing shoulders away, (Sometimes the first triple is danced as a single slow step in, lowering to shoulder contact, and then rising, drawing out the shove in an affectionate way.) In the Rumbles' Switchin' In the Kitchen, there is a kick to the shoulder shove to a double whip throwaway;;;; and chugging around;;;
Shoulder Shove in 4

1234;
In LOFP, rock apart L (W apt R), recover trng RF (W LF), sd Ltwd ptr bringing lead shoulders together, recover turning to face again;

Note, only one measure.
In School Days by Schmidt, facing ptnr & LOD, we do a side break and hold; shoulder shove in 4; shoulder shove to a fan ; ,,
Shoulder Roll

phase VI

123a4; 1a2

In a facing position with right-right hands joined, rock back L (woman bk R), recover R, fwd L/R, L beginning RF underarm turn (woman turn LF full turn under joined R hands); in place R/L, R completing RF turn (woman triple in place),

Note that both turn under joined R hands, woman a bit ahead of man. Couple may end in starting facing direction or may change facing direction.


And I Love You So

1234;
In a facing position, step side L (W sd R), roll the hips forward and CW (W CCW) over two beats, and recover onto the trail feet;

Just a little different is Slow Slow I Love You So. In loose CP we step sd L and move the hips left (W sd R hips right), sd R hips right (W sd L), move the hips away from ptnr, and move hips toward ptnr with a bump;

This figure is not at all standardized. The important component is the pelvic bump.
In Your Feet's Too Big by the Scherrers, there is an american spin; ,, basic rock ,;; link rock; ,, rock rec and I love you so ,;; rock rec swivel 2;

In How Sweet It Is by Cantrell, we start in BFLY COH with sand step 2X;; R trng fallaway; ,, rock rec to CP wall ,; slow slow I love you so; vine 4; sd break hold; slow slow I love you so;
Spanish Arms

phase IV

123a4; 1a2

In butterfly wall rock back, recover turning rf quarter and drawing lead hands in front of body woman turning lf to partial wrap both facing reverse, sd/cl, sd turning rf quarter to face center and turning woman 3/4 rf to face wall; sd/cl, sd, (the couple turns 1/2 as the woman is wrapped and unwrapped) In the Bahrs' Zat You, part B begins with a jive chasse left and right; windmill and spanish arms;;; fallaway throwaway to a rock, recover;; point step twice; and a slow side break;
Triple Wheel

phase IV

123a4; 1a23a4; 1a2,

In an open facing position with right-right hands joined, rock apart L (woman bk R), recover R, step sd L/cl R, sd L turning RF and wheeling RF to touch your partner's back with your left hand (woman turns LF and wheels RF to turn her back to her man); chasse a second time continuing to wheel RF and turning 1/2 LF (woman RF) so woman can touch man's back with her left hand, chasse a third time wheeling and turn 1/2 RF (woman LF) to touch woman's back; finally chasse in place and lead the woman to tuck LF and spin a triple RF to face partner,

At first, the name Triple Wheel makes you think of three things, and yet the figure uses four chasses. Think of the figure beginning with a rock, recover, and ending with an American Spin ending, with three back-touching chasses between.

Usually you wheel as a couple 1/2 over the three triples. A Triple Wheel 5 would wheel one full turn. A Triple Wheel 7 would go around 1 1/2, but as the figure is extended, the cuer had better state the ending direction.

In the Worlocks' A Letter To You, there is a trade places twice to a handshake facing line;; triple wheel one with spin to face partner and wall and an american spin both spin;;;
Rolling Off the Arm

phase VI

123a4; 123a4;

In a facing handshake position, rock apart L (woman apart R), recover, fwd R/L, R turning 1/4 RF wrapping woman into R arm (woman turning 1/4 LF into man's R arm); fwd R, fwd L wheeling 1/2 RF (woman bk L, R), triple in place R/L, R turning 1/4 RF (woman triple and spin out RF to face man; As a couple, you will make one full turn.
Continuous Rolling Off the Arm

123a4; 123a4; 123a4; 123a4;

In a right handshake position facing wall, rock apart L (woman apart R), recover R, chasse fwd L/R, L turning 1/4 RF (W chasse fwd R/L, R turning 1/4 LF into man's R arm) to end both facing RLOD with R hands at woman's R hip and L arms extended to side; fwd R releasing R hands and beginning RF roll across front of woman (W rock bk L pushing down on man's L arm in a Turnstile manner to lead his roll), sd L rolling (W recover R bringing L arm up underneath man's L arm and pushing his L arm up in a Turnstile manner) to end both facing RLOD with M to R of W rejoining R hands at man's R hip and L arms extended to side, chasse bk R/L, R (W chasse fwd L/R, L) wheeling 1/4 RF to face COH; rock bk L pushing downward on W’s L arm to lead her RF roll (W fwd R releasing R hnds and commencing RF roll across front of M), rec R (W sd L rolling) while bringing his L arm up underneath W’s L and pushing W’s L arm upward to end both facing COH with W to R of M rejoining R hnds at W’s R hip and W’s L hnd resting on top of M’s L arm, chasse fwd L/R, L (W chasse bk L/R, L) wheeling 1/4 RF both fc LOD; wheel 1/2 RF stepping fwd R (W bk L), L to face RLOD, step in place R/L, R (W roll out of M’s R arm leaving R hnds joined L/R, L to face partner & LOD); In Been There, Done That by the Rumbles, there is a link to a whip spin;; change places left to right to a triple travel with roll and change left to right;;;;;; continuous rolling off the arm;;;; change left to right to a double whip turn;;;;
Lindy Catch

phase IV

123a4; 123a4;

In a facing position rk, rec fwd/fwd, fwd around woman's right side catching her at her waist as if to stop her forward movement; fwd continuing around woman she bk, fwd she bk, fwd/fwd, fwd to face woman bk/bk, bk, (two measure figure; man makes complete circle around woman back to original position; woman faces same direction throughout) In the Scotts' Little Deuce Coupe, part A begins with ive walks; swivel 4; throwaway; kickball change twice; lindy catch;; stop and go;; change left to right to face wall and link rock to semi;;;
Sailor Shuffle

phase IV

1a2

Often in facing position, cross L in back of R holding upper body upright and still (woman XRIB of L)/step sd R with a pushing action, sd L,

The lower body should pendulum back and forth under a still upper body as on a rocking boat. May be done in any position with either foot.

Often this figure will be cued with the number of triples to be danced, e.g., "three sailor shuffles" takes 1 1/2 measures of music.


Riverboat Shuffle

phase IV

1234;

In a facing position but no hands joined trail feet free both XIF lower trail shoulders cross arms in front of body and snap fingers, sd and uncross arms, XIB lower lead shoulders slightly, sd; Do a fallaway rock to a single side chasse down line;; riverboat shuffle; again blending to semi; one triple down line, kick ball change;

Larry Monday and Gladys Gunter, in their Little Shoes, did a shoulder roll lady transition to a riverboat shuffle in tandem position. I'll let you look at page 2 of that cue sheet yourself.

In Southern Nights III, Vincent begins with a riverboat shuffle to reverse; back to line; and then a double cuban and point;

Coca Rola

phase VI

1234; 1234;

In a side-by-side position, shadow, skaters, or varsouvienne, with same footwork, swivel RF on the right foot lower into the knees and cross LIF of R, swivel LF on L rising and step back R, swivel RF on R high and proud and step side L, and swivel LF on L and XRIF of L to end in original position; repeat;

I think I've seen the coca rola done more often as a one-measure figure than as a two.

It is also choreographed as a "Jazz Box" without the swivels: XLIF of R, bk R, sd L, XRIF of L;


Whip Turn

phase V

123a4;

In closed position facing reverse and wall, XRIB of left with toe out [foot rotated CW] (woman fwd L toward man's right side) and begin turning RF, sd L continue turning strongly (woman fwd R between his feet), side chasse remaining in closed position; May begin in other facing directions.

This is a spot turn for the couple of up to one full turn (no progression) during the first two steps. The man must step well under his body with soft knees. May begin in other facing directions.

These "whip" figures are usually preceded by a Link: rock apart on the lead foot, recover, and then triple beginning to turn RF; This sets up the actual "whip" turn. But we don't have uniform consistency. Sometimes a "whip" figure will be choreographed as a two-measure figure as if the link is part of the whip turn.

In the Schmidts' Better Listen To Me Now, there is a stop & go; link to a whip turn;; to a fallaway throwaway side lunge & freeze;;

On the other hand, in Crazy Little Thing Called Love, the Lillefields have a two-measure whip turn (the link included);;

Whip Throwaway

phase V

123a4;

This is a whip turn in which the woman is moved away from the man during the chasse. In closed position facing reverse and wall, XRIB of left with toe out [foot rotated CW] (woman fwd L toward man's right side) and begin turning RF, sd L continue turning strongly (woman fwd R between his feet) and release right hand hold, chasse in place and lead womanside and back L/close R, side L to end in left open facing position;

Again, sometimes the preceding Link is choreographed as though it were part of the whip figure (see Whip Turn above).

In the Scotts' Bad Leroy Brown, part B begins with chicken walks;; a two-measure whip throwaway;; american spin, stop & go, and rock recover;;;;

In Choo Choo Ch'Boogie, the Gosses also choreograph a two-measure Whip Throwaway;; to a Left to Right and rock recover;;

Whip Spin

phase VI

123a4;

This is a Whip Turn in which the man takes the woman's right hand in his right hand behind her back and pulls her into a full RF free spin during the triple of the whip turn. So, usually in closed position facing reverse and wall, he XRIB of L turning RF (woman fwd L turning). He may have changed from lead hands joined to the "behind-the-back handshake" during the link, or this could happen during the 1 or the 2 of the whip spin itself. On count 2, he steps side L turning and she steps fwd R between his feet. During the triple, the man complete up to 7/8 RF turn and leads the woman to turn and to spin about 1 & 1/2 RF to end in open facing position. In the Rumbles' Been There, Done That, there is a link & whip spin;; change places left to right to a triple travel with roll and change left to right;;;;;;
Curly Whip

phase VI

123a4; 123a4;

In closed or left open facing position, rock forward L toward wall (woman bk R), recover R raising lead hands to lead a reverse underarm turn, step sd L/cl R, sd L turning 1/8 RF (woman turns 7/8 LF under lead hands remaining in circle of man's R arm) to end in closed position facing reverse and wall; XRIB of left (woman fwd L toward man's right side) and begin turning RF, sd L continue turning strongly (woman fwd R between his feet), side chasse remaining in closed position; May begin in other facing directions.

Notice that Roundalab does define this figure as consisting of two measures, perhaps because it begins with such an unusual "linking" measure. The ballroom world and URDC describe a one-measure curly whip as a fwd L, rec R, chasse L/R, L turning 1/2 RF and leading woman to turn under LF to end in CP facing COH;

In Bassett's House of Blue Lights, there is a Stop & Go;; to a Curly Whip;;

In the Woodruffs' Shamey Shamey Shame, there is a link to a whip turn;; curly whip;; to a pretzel turn;;

Kick Whip

1234; 1a234; 1a234; 1a234; 1a234;

This is a big figure—five measures. There is an even-count set-up and then four measures of real performance. Simplified, we kick/ball change, circle two; sit/ball change, circle two; and repeat.

More precisely, the figure begins in left open facing position. The man might be facing line of dance. Rock back L (woman rocks back R), recover R, forward L blending to loose closed position, and step fwd R turning to face the wall (woman steps fwd and sd L turning RF to face wall also) ending in an L-position both facing wall lead hands joined;

Now, kick L and look toward LOD (woman kicks R and looks toward RLOD)/ rotate RF and step fwd L to RLOD (woman XRIB of L and turn to face LOD), fwd R (woman fwd L), fwd L small step and turning RF, small step bk R (woman close L) turning to face LOD and partner and releasing to a left open facing position again; You have danced a complete circle over the first two measures.

To begin the third measure, settle the right hip back, straighten the left leg, and point L heel fwd (woman sits into left hip and extends right heel forward toward partner). On the "a" count, close L to R (woman close R to L). Step fwd R, fwd L blending to loose closed position, and fwd R turning to L-position, both facing wall;

Finish the figure by repeating measures two and three, as described above. Again, those two measures are almost a kick/ball change, circle two; and sit/ball change, circle two. Do it twice. You will go around a total of 2 1/2 times and end the figure in L-position, man facing wall and woman facing line.

In the Lillefields' Beale Street Blues, we do a spanish arms to face wall, a change places right to left to face line;;; to a kick whip;;;;; and then slingshot runaway and back to the L-position twice;;;;
Neck Slide

phase V

123a4; 123a4;

In a low butterfly position facing wall, rock back L (woman bk R), recover R raising hands up and over partner's head, forward L/close R, fwd L releasing hold and placing right hand on partner's R shoulder ending on woman's right side; wheel 1/2 RF stepping fwd R (woman fwd L), fwd L turning, slide R hand down woman's R arm step fwd R turning RF to face partner and line of dance/close L, side R to join right hands;

Total turn is 3/4 RF as a couple.

In Tulane by the Fishers, part A starts with a neck slide;; rolling off the arm to face wall;; sandstep wheel;;;;;
Kick Ball Change

phase III

1a2

We do a small kick forward/close on ball of that foot, close other foot, (two wt changes)
Jitterbug Kicks

1234; 123a4; 1234; 1234; 1a234; 1234; 1234; 1a2

This is an unphased figure that I have only seen in Sunflower, but since this dance was just elected to the URDC Hall of Fame (2006), we should look at it.

In closed position facing wall, rock back L (woman back R) to semi-closed, recover R, touch L, small forward L; kick R through (woman kick L through), turn to closed position and touch R to L, sd R/cl L, sd R;

Let's pause. Notice that we have danced the first two measures. It was a rock, recover, touch, step; kick, touch, and a side chasse to reverse line of dance. We will repeat this pattern with two kicks and then with three kicks for a total of 7 1/2 measures. In the timing to the left, I have given the "kick, touch" counts in garnet.

To continue: in measure 3, we rock, recover, touch, step; kick R (woman L), touch R, kick R, touch R; sd R/cl L, sd R, and finally rock L, recover R; touch L, step L, kick R, touch R; kick R, touch R, kick R, touch R; and sd R/cl L, sd R,

Let me admit that the cue sheet does not include the first "rock, recover, touch, step" within the figure but cues it separately, and it does include a final "rock, recover" for a total of 7 measures.

In Sunflower by the Tonks, part A begins with two jive walks; swivel 4; jitterbug kicks and a rock recover ;;;;;;;; to a throwaway; and part B starts with chicken walks;;
Sand Step

qqs;

This is a two-step figure. In butterfly position and standing on the right foot (woman left), swivel RF (woman LF) and touch the free toe to the floor, swivel LF and touch the free heel to the floor, cross LIF of right and take weight, -; May be done with the trail feet. Only one weight change.
Continuous Sand Step

qqqq; qqqq; qqqq;

In butterfly position and standing on the right foot (woman left), swivel RF (woman LF) and touch the lead toe to the floor, swivel LF and touch the lead heel to the floor, swivel RF and cross LIF of right and take weight, swivel LF and touch trail foot toe to floor; swivel RF and touch trail foot heel to floor, swivel LF and XRIF of L and take weight, swivel RF (woman LF) and touch the free toe to the floor, swivel LF and touch the free heel to the floor; swivel RF and cross LIF of right and take weight, swivel LF and touch trail foot toe to floor, swivel RF and touch trail foot heel to floor, swivel LF and close R to L (W cls L to R); In Choo Choo Ch'Boogie by the Gosses, there is a change places left to right rock recover;; continuous sand step;;; Elvis swivels and quick rock recover; to jive walks; swivel walk 4;
Traveling Sand Step

1234; 1234;

In butterfly position, swivel 1/8 RF on R (woman LF on L) and touch free toe to instep of supporting foot, swivel 1/4 LF on R and step small side step L, swivel 1/4 RF on L and touch R heel to floor, swivel 1/4 LF on L and cross right in front of left (woman XLIB of right) to contra banjo position; In the second measure, you essentially repeat the first: swivel 1/4 RF on R (woman LF on L) and touch free toe to instep of supporting foot, swivel 1/4 LF on R and step small side step L, swivel 1/4 RF on L and touch R heel to floor, swivel 1/4 LF on L and cross right in front of left (woman XLIB of right) to contra banjo position; Only two weight changes per measure.

A slightly different performance asks us to touch left toe to rt instep, tch L heel to sd, sd L & tch R heel to sd, XREF of L; repeat; Note that the actions and the timeing are a little different: instead of toe, step, heel, cross; we have toe, heel, step/heel, cross;

Notice that two phase II sand steps carries you a little to reverse and then back to line, and you haven't progressed. The steps can be summarized: toe, heel, cross, -; toe, heel, cross, -; Two measures of the traveling sand steps cause you to progress down line (if you begin facing wall) with a toe, step, heel, cross; toe, step, heel, cross;

In the Hurds' Fine Brown Frame, part B begins with traveling sand steps;; away kick face point; sailor shuffles;; progressive rock 4 to face; and 2 slow and 4 quick side breaks;;

In Chain of Fools by the Cantrells, we dance the second form of the figure. Part B starts with a link & whip throwaway;; change hands behind the back rock apart recover to butterfly;; 2 traveling sand steps; to a right turning fallaway and back 2;;

Triple Travel with Roll

1a234; 1a23a4; 1a234;1a2

Start in a right-hand star position facing COH with trail feet free. Chasse side right (W sd L)/close L, sd R and give a small push with the right hand and begin a right-face roll down line, fwd L (W bk R) continuing to roll RF, sd R completing a 1 1/2 turn to a left-hand star position facing wall with hands at about shoulder height and lead feet free; During the roll, fold arms in front of body with hands at about waist level. Chasse side L/cl R, sd L (W sd R/cl L, sd R,) and give a small push with the left hand turning 1/2 LF to a right-hand star position facing center of hall, chasse sd R/cl L, sd R and give a small push with the right hand turning 1/2 right-face to a left-hand star position facing wall lead feet free; chasse sd L/cl R, sd L and give a small push with the left hand and begin a left-face roll down line, fwd R continuing to roll, sd L completing a 1 1/4 turn to left open facing position facing line of dance; fwd R/cl L or lk LIB of R, fwd R, (W bk L/cl R or lk RIF of L, bk L) 

One entry sequence begins in left open facing position RLOD with a change places left to right into the triple travel with roll. The first chasse of the change places left to right is used to blend into the right hand star position, and the second chasse of the change places becomes the first chasse of the triple travel with roll. 

The figure may begin with the man facing wall and will then progress to RLOD. 

A styling option that many consider to be more gently flowing is to use diagonal facing directions and to underturn each of the four turns within the figure. So, in the first right hand star, the man faces DLC and the woman faces DRW, and that initial roll becomes only 1 1/4 RF (instead of 1 1/2). In the first of the three central chasses, he faces DLW, and she faces DRC. To do the second of the three central chasses, both turn only 1/4 LF, rather than 1/2, and he faces DLC again (rather than COH). Turn 1/4 RF for the third of the central chasses, and he will face DLW and she DRC. Finally, roll 1 1/8 LF (instead of 1 1/4) to Left Open Facing Position LOD for the final chasse.

In Grace Kelly by Goss & Figwer, part B begins with a change places L to R into a triple travel with roll--stop & go--change places L to R;;;;;;;;
Sandstep Wheel

1234; 1234; 1234; 1234; 1234;

This one is a five-measure figure of 20 even beats. Both do a rock, recover in butterfly position. The man then does 3 traveling sand steps: toe, step, heel, cross; toe, step, heel, cross; each and 3 sand steps: toe, heel, cross, each. The woman does one sand step (toe, heel, cross), 3 traveling sand steps (toe, step, heel, cross; toe, step, heel, cross;) and then the other plain sand step. They maintain their double hand-hold throughout and over the 18 counts following the rock, recover, they rotate as a couple one full turn RF. In the Fishers' Tulane, there is a neckslide;; rolling off the arm to face wall;; sandstep wheel;;;;; to a stop & go with double stop action;;;

In the Rumbles' Runaround Sue, part D consists of a sandstep wheel;;;;; and Spanish arms twice;;;

Mooch

phase V

1234; 1234; 1a234; 1234; 123a4;

In semi-closed position facing LOD, rock back L (woman bk R), recover R, lift the knee and flick the L foot forward slightly off the floor, close L; flick R, close R, rock bk L, recover R; turning RF (woman LF) step sd L/cl R, sd L to reverse semi-closed position facing RLOD, rock bk R, recover L; flick R fwd, close R, flick L, cl L; rock bk R, recover L, turn LF (woman RF) step sd R/cl L, sd R to semi-closed position LOD;

Notice that this figure turns from semi to reverse semi and back to semi again. Sometimes the figure uses half-open and left half-open, open and left open, or side-by-side positions.

Another variation is to use a slight hop on the supporting foot when flicking the free foot and again when closing the free foot to the supporting foot. Instead of simply closing after a flick, you may also spring onto the free foot, ball-flat, in front of the supporting foot with a cut action.

In the Cantrells' I Wanta Dance With You, there is a left to right with continuous chassee;; new yorker 4 to SCP; mooch to open facing position wall;;;;; and a stop and go;;

In Man, I Feel Like A Jive by the Rotscheids, there is change hands behind the back to face wall ~ rock recover to;; spanish arms twice ~ basic;;;; mooch;;;;; double rock; right turning fallaway to semi reverse; mooch;;;;;

Marchessi

phase IV

1a2a3a4a; 1a2a3a4a;

This is a samba figure done in closed position, lead hands joined low at hip level with man's palm up and woman's palm down. Keep some weight on trail feet throughout. Press L heel fwd (woman R toe bk) shifting partial weight/recover to trail foot, press L toe back (woman R heel fwd) again shifting partial weight/recover to trail foot, heel fwd/rec, heel fwd/rec; toe bk/rec, heel fwd/rec, toe bk/rec, toe bk/rec; The lower body rocks fwd and bk but the upper body remains still.

Actually, I've never seen it danced in this syncopated, two-measure form. We can do it in samba because the tempo is much slower, but at jive tempo, I'm not sure this is possible. In jive, the marchessi is danced as an even-count, four-measure figure: 1234; 1234; 1234; 1234; It might be cued as a "slow" marchessi, but even slowed in this way, it moves fast enough so that actual weight changes can be difficult.
In Midnight in Austin Texas by Filardo we start the dance with a slow marchessi;;;; away kick face tch 2X;; throwaway;

In Rock Right by Woodruff we throwaway; chicken walks 2S & 4Q;; chasse roll to OP LOD;;;; slo back marchessi;;;;
Catapult

phase V

123a4; 1a2,

In tandem position, woman behind the man, with a double hand-hold (R-R and L-L), the man steps forward L (woman back R), recover R, chasse in place L/R, L while releasing right hands and leading woman to pass man's left side and spin 1/2 RF R/L, R to face man; chasse in place R/L, R, (woman L/R, L,)

It can be thought of as a "come from behind american spin."

Flicks into Break

phase V

1234; 1234; 1234; 1234; 1, -, -/a, 4;

This is a long figure (five measures) but in a nutshell, it consists of a rock-recover, three point-steps down line, four kick-steps to line, to reverse, to line, and to reverse, and finally a lunge thru to line like a chair, hold, and ball-change. In jive, the point-steps and kick-steps are quick and so constitute "flicks" of the foot. The last lunge and ball-change is the break.

So, step-by-step, it goes like this: In a loose closed position facing wall, rock back L (woman bk R) to semi-closed, recover R, point lead foot to line and look to line with forward poise, step fwd on lead foot; point trail foot thru and look to reverse with back poise, step fwd on trail foot, point lead foot to line and look to line with forward poise, step fwd on lead foot; kick trail foot thru, then retract it and step side to face partner, kick lead foot thru to reverse, retract and step side; kick trail foot thru, retract it and step side to face partner, kick lead foot thru to reverse, retract and step side; step fwd on trail foot in a lunging chair-like action, hold, hold/recover on ball of lead foot, fwd R (woman fwd L);

Note that you progress down line on the three point-steps but you do not progress during the kick-steps. This figure can start in semi-closed or butterfly position, and it can be done in other orientations, e.g. to reverse.

In Sorry Jive by the Bahrs, there is a stop & go with double stap action;;; flicks into break;;;;; throwaway; to chicken walks slow;
Savoy

1234; 12/a34;

You might be in a side-by-side position, both with the left foot free. Flick the left foot forward, close the left to right, flick the right foot forward, and then touch the right to left; In the second measure, point the right back on the first beat, cross the right in back of the left/and kick the left forward in the second beat, bend the left leg so the upper leg is parallel to the floor on the third, and point the left back on the fourth; You may do this sequence with a little lifting action on each step.
Maxixe

(pronounced "ma-sheesh," "muh-sheesh," or "ma-shee-sheh")

1234; 1234;

You might be in tandem position, both with left foot free. Step forward L, recover R, back L, rec R; fwd L, rec R, bk L, rec R; Do this one with a swaying Cuban hip action.




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