ROUND DANCING — CHOREOGRAPHED BALLROOM

FIGURE DESCRIPTIONS

MAJOR SECTIONS: Figures | Articles | Links | Alph. Index | Search | Home

BROWSE
Figures in the Smooth Rhythms
Foxtrot
Quickstep
Waltz
Viennese Waltz
International Tango
American Tango
Two Step
Five Count
One Step
Polka
Rhythm
Figures in the Latin Rhythms
Cha Cha
Rumba
Jive
Single Swing
West Coast Swing
Lindy
Hustle
Bolero
Slow Two Step
Mambo
Salsa
Samba
Argentine Tango
Merengue
Paso Doble
Dance Articles
Articles Home

Dance Figures

Dance Rhythms
Lead and Follow
Dance Styling
Fred Astaire Album
Other Sections
Dance Links
Music Clips For Each Rhythm
Search Site/Web
Sources
Contact Me

Page Contents
History & Technique
Specific Figures
Quote

Modern Waltz—

3 beats/measure, 28-35 measures/minute

The origins of the Waltz go back hundreds of years. The rhythm came to Vienna in the early 1800s, and the Viennese Waltz was first exhibited in America in 1834 in Boston. Especially at the beginning of the 20th century the slower Modern Waltz, danced at about half the original tempo, developed along with the Viennese Waltz. The Modern Waltz is smoother, less frantic, and more varied. We turn left, then right. We dance forward and back, we pause, and we can spend a measure or more developing this or that "picture" figure. Perhaps the most consistent feature of today's waltz is the pronounced, controlled, wave-like rise and fall as we progress around the floor.

The first beat of each measure is a heavily accented "downbeat." The music then rises to a crescendo through upbeats 2 and 3. At the end of beat 3, the music falls again. The dancer feels this swelling and contracting in each measure. We rise and stretch with the music. One dancer described the feel of waltz music as "BOOM, cha, cha." I don't know about the "cha-cha," but beat one certainly is dominant.

Lower in the knee at the end of beat 3. Many figures end with a closing step that helps accentuate this "fall" (compare to the passing steps in foxtrot that keep you up more of the time). Stay down through count 1 with a heel lead, rise during 2, and stay up into 3: down, up, up; down, up, up. Often, we stretch count 2, borrowing a little time from 1 and/or 3, delaying and extending the rise, "milking" the body flight, smoothing out the turn of the figure. There is strong body sway toward the center of the turns.

Figure Name, Roundalab Phase Level, & Timing

q=quick, 1 beat
s=slow, 2 beats
&=1/2 beat; a=1/4 beat

Steps and Actions That Make Up the Figure

Each description focuses on the man, with the woman's footwork in parenthesis. If a woman's step is not given, it is the natural opposite or follow of the man's. Help: basic dance positions and steps, actions, directions, and abbreviations. Non-standard punctuation: a comma separates two beats of music, a semi-colon marks the end of a measure, and a slash (/) indicates a split beat, two things occurring in a single beat.

Here are some sequences to help you visualize the figure in context.

Forward Waltz

phase II

123;

In closed position facing line of dance, step forward L (woman back R), forward R, close L; (may begin with trail feet). In the Baldwins' Arizona Waltz, part A has a forward waltz; fwd waltz (woman drift apart); twinkle twice to closed position;; two left turns to closed position reverse;; open impetus; thru, side, close;
Closed Change

123;

In closed position facing line of dance, step forward L, side and forward R, close L; (may begin with trail feet).

The closed change is not a standard round dance figure, but a ballroom term. It is a simple figure that changes the free foot from one to the other. You may have been doing left turning figures. After a closed change, you can now begin doing right turning figures.

In the Valentas' Lourdes, the Village of Saint Bernadette, part A begins with two left turns;; closed change; an underturned maneuver to closed position facing reverse and wall; outside change to semi-closed position facing line; wing; open telemark; maneuver; open impetus;
Back Waltz

phase II

123:

In closed position, step back, back, close; In the Metzgers' Mission Bell Waltz, there is a waltz away; turn in three to left open position facing reverse; back waltz; back, draw, point lead; twinkle thru; and twinkle to butterfly;
Waltz Away and Together

phase I

123; 123;

In semi, line, step fwd turn a quarter LF woman RF releasing lead hands, side and fwd to slight back-to-back, cl; side and fwd turning back to face partner, side, cl back to semi line; In the Carriggs' Signed, Sealed & Delivered, the introduction begins in butterfly wall with a waltz away and together;; balance left and right;; lace across; forward waltz to face; box;; lace back; forward waltz to face; and then a left turning box;;;;
Balance Forward and Back

phase I

123; 123;

In closed position step fwd, close, step; bk, close, step; In Healea's It's All In the Game, there is a waltz away; thru twinkle to LOP RLOD; balance fwd & bk;; thru twinkle to open LOD; and fwd face close to butterfly wall;
Balance Left and Right

phase I

123; 123;

In closed position step side, XIB, recover; sd, XIB, rec;

May be done in other positions.

In the Stapletons' Mexicali Rose, there is a balance left and right;; twirl vine; and thru, side, close;
Twisty Balance Left & Right

123; 123;

In closed position, step sd L (Wsd R) turning RF, XREB of L (W XLIF of R) to sidecar position, rec fwd L turning Lf to CP again; sd R turning LF, XLIB of R (W XRIF of L) to banjo position, rec fwd R to CP again; In Mira River Waltz by the Taylors, there is a maneuver; 2 R turns;; twisty balance L & R;; twisty vine; fwd face close;
Pas De Bas

123;

Step side, cross free foot loosely in front of supporting foot and take weight briefly on the toes, recover; In Trilogy by Lamberty & Halbert, the dance begins in open position facing LOD, trail feet free, with a front pas de bas; pas de bas turn 3/4 to face partner and wall; and a canter forward to face;
Face

phase I

1

Step and turn to face partner. One weight change. In The Party Is Over by the Chadds, there is a fwd waltz; thru twinkle twd LOD; thru twinkle to RLOD; thru face close to butterfly; canter twice;;
Side

phase I

1

Step to the side and take weight. In The Lovers' Waltz by the Scherrers, part B begins with a waltz away; thru twinkle; thru twinkle; thru side behind; roll 3; thru face close; box;;
Recover

phase I

1
Return weight to the free foot that has not moved appreciably from its previous location. The foot may turn if required.
In What If by Chadd, there is a forward waltz; 2 left turns;; dip back; recover tch; solo turn 6 to bfly;;
Draw

phase II

12
There is no weight change. We bring the free foot smoothly and more or less slowly toward the weighted foot and touch. For a little more drama, we can sway toward that moving foot.

Often preceded with a side step. May use either foot. Timing may vary.
In Sunshine by Lamberty, we begin with a pas de bas lady underarm turn; side R draw L to CP; telemark to SCP;
Cross

phase I

1

With either foot, step forward, in front of, and slightly beyond the weighted foot. Take weight.

One can also cross behind. The cue can be more specific: e.g., cross left in front of right.

In A Daisy in December by Hurd we begin in LOP with a side lunge w/ arm sweep; roll across to OP LOD; cross check, rec, sd; shadow cross hover 3X;;;
Thru

phase I

1

A step forward by both dancers between partners. For instance, in SCP with trail feet free, a forward step would be a step "thru." Since the lady is a on the man's right side, the man's step would precede the lady's.
In Tammy 4 by the Wolffs, there is a balance left; reverse twirl 3; thru twinkle; thru face close; fwd touch; back turn 1/4 LF; thru twinkle twice;;
Thru Side Close

phase II

123;

Step forward between partners with a reaching action and begin to rise, step side with the free foot rising, close free foot to the supporting foot and lower;

May begin with either foot and from any facing position. Often cued Thru Face Close.

In It's Four In the Morning by Hichman, there is a maneuver; spin turn; box finish; telemark to semi; thru face close to butterfly; balance left; reverse twirl;
Twinkle

phase II

123;

From almost any position, cross, side, close; The cuer will tell you to twinkle in front or behind, or to twinkle to a given position. In sidecar, diagonal wall, you might twinkle out, man crossing in front and woman behind, turning to banjo diagonal center, and then twinkle in and turn back to sidecar again. Outside of round dancing, I think this sequence might be a "grapevine."

In the Ellis' Dream Awhile, there is a cross pivot to sidecar; twinkle to banjo reverse; waltz fwd and check; pivot RF to semi; pick up;

Progressive Twinkle

phase I

123;

Cross, side, close progressing down line of dance; In closed position reverse line of dance, do a spin turn; half box back to sidecar diagonal line and wall; then three progressive twinkles to banjo diagonal line and center;;; for a maneuver; and repeat if you like;;;;;
Back Twinkle

phase II

123;

In open position facing line, step back and turn 1/4 in. Step side, continuing to turn, and close. End in left open position facing reverse. You may now back twinkle to open again, beginning with the trail foot.
Thru Twinkle

phase II

123;

In a facing position, cross between partners with either foot both crossing in front, step side, close to a facing position again;
In Kropfs' Beautiful Dreamer, we have a forward waltz; drift apart; twinkle thru; twinkle thru to closed position line of dance; and two left turns to closed position wall;;
Change Sides

phase II

123;
In butterfly, trail feet free, he dances fwd R, fwd L, close R; describing a RF arc in front of the woman (W fwd L, fwd R, cl L; trng LF), passing right shoulders, moving from the inside of the circle to the outside (W toward COH) and ending in a position that will be cued.
Spot Spin

phase II

123;

A solo full turn in place in three steps. Turn in the direction of the free foot: swivel/step, swivel/step, swivel/step;

May be done either LF or RF.

Circle Away and Together

phase I

123; 123;

In any position, turn away from partner, man LF and woman RF, and step fwd with the lead feet, fwd, cl; turning 1/2. Return to partner: fwd, fwd, cl; completing a full circle.

Although this is a two-measure figure, each half may be used separately.


Roll or Solo Turn; Roll 3

phase II

123;

A right or left individual turn with each step progressing down line or to reverse as directed. In butterfly wall, roll six down line, man LF and woman RF to open position facing line;; (At the end of the first measure, both will be facing reverse, nothing touching.) Then perhaps, lace across and back to semi;;

In the Bendewalds' Die Lorelei, part B begins with waltz away & together;; two solo waltz turns to closed position wall;; dip to center; maneuver; and impetus to semi line;

Wrap

phase II

123;

Begin in open position, both facing line of dance, with trail feet free (man's right, woman's left). Step forward R (woman fwd L turning LF). As the man steps, he moves his right hand back to lead the woman's left turn, and he raises his left hand to further encourage her to turn toward him and to take his left in her right. His second step is forward L. She steps fwd R, continuing to turn under his left hand. If he is careful to position his left hand directly over her head, she will not be pulled to one side or the other. Finally, he closed R to L (woman L to R), and you end in wrapped position, both facing LOD, with the man's right arm behind the woman's back and his left arm in front of her. All hands are joined. With his arms around her and her arms crossed in front of her body, you are of course very close—in an embrace. The woman should be in front of the man and a little to his right side.

The man should be a little careful, and this is often true as he leads his partner to do turns, spins, and other decorative flourishes—so often the woman is whirling away and the man is calmly guiding these movements. Anyway, he needs to keep his steps small, and he needs to adjust his movement to the woman. Here, she is dancing in a circle, and he could easily outrun her and pull on her. He needs to think about that and avoid it.

Another thing he can do to make this more graceful and less jerky is to keep his hand holds very loose. You need to keep hand contact, but don't grip. Just try to make fingertip contact so hands turn easily and no joints get twisted. His arms are around her, but don't bind her. Keep the wrap a loose one.

In the Wilhoits' Jacalyn's Waltz, part C begins with a waltz away; wrap; forward waltz; pickup; to a left turn; and a backup waltz;
Cross Wrap

123;

In open position, perhaps facing LOD, step forward R turning RF and leading woman to wrap LF with a little backward tug on her L hand (woman fwd L turning LF), fwd L turning, fwd R turning to end in wrapped position facing RLOD;

Note that the man moves across the line of progression from the inside of the circle to the outside. The woman stays on his right side.

In Could I Have This Dance by the Eddins, part A begins with a waltz away; both wrap (crosswrap) to face reverse; back waltz; woman roll to left open position facing reverse; and a thru twinkle; to a maneuver;
Canter

phase II

123;

Step sd, draw, cl; (two wt changes)

May be done in any position and in any facing direction, and the first step may also be taken forward or back, in which case the direction must be indicated: e.g., Forward Canter.
In the Clements' Telling Everybody II, part A begins with a left turning box to closed position line of dance;;;; progressive box;; one left turn to closed position reverse; one back up waltz; two right turns to closed wall;; canter twice;; to a twisty vine 3; thru face close;
Link To Promenade

phase VI

123;

In banjo position, perhaps facing line and wall, step forward R with slight right sway (woman back L turning RF), draw L to R, fwd L rising to toes and with left sway to open woman's head (woman fwd R);

May begin in other positions and orientations, so first step may vary. The essence is to move from some other position in two steps to semi-closed position, trail feet free.

In Serenade VI by the Dois, there is a double telespin to closed;;; left tipple chasse pivot; back to a throwaway oversway;; link to semi; chair & slip; telemark to semi;
Chasse

(pronounce "sha-SAY" — a "sashay" is a square dance term)

phase III

1&2

In French, chasse is a chase, chasing, pursuit. Chassé is a ballet term and refers to one foot "chasing" the other. In round dancing, the steps are side/close, side, and may begin with either foot. Usually occurs at the end of a measure (eg. 2&3). In the Schmidts' Blue Roses, part A begins with one left turn; back and chassé to banjo; maneuver; and impetus to semi;
Forward Chasse

phase III

12&3;

So, here is a complete measure using a chassé. In open position, step forward R (woman fwd L) turning to face partner, side L (woman sd R)/close R, side L; End in semi-closed or other designated position. In Kamin's Song by the Prows, there is an open impetus; forward chasse to banjo; maneuver side close; to 2 R turns;;
Thru Chasse

phase III

12&3;

In half open, butterfly, or maybe semi-closed position, step thru R (woman thru L) turning to face partner, side L/close R, side L to semi-closed, banjo, or other designated position;

Could be cued Semi Chasse.

In the Bradts' The Sun, The Sea & The Sky, part A begins with 2 left turns;; whisk; semi chasse; to a promenade weave 6;;

In Coronado Sunset by Oren, there is cross hover three times to semi;;; thru chasse to semi; again; to a maneuver, side, close;

Back Chasse Pivot

12&3;

In closed or banjo position facing RLOD, step back R (woman fwd L) beginning to turn LF, sd L/cl R (W sd R/XLIF of R) to closed position facing DLC, fwd L and pivot LF to CP facing RLOD; In The Rainbow Connection by the Andersons, part B starts with a maneuver; overturned spin turn; right turning lock to semi; running open natural; back chasse pivot; to a throwaway oversway;;
Turn Left and Right Chasse

phase III

12&3;

In closed position facing LOD, step forward L (woman back R), begin turning LF and step forward & side R/close L, side R to banjo position facing reverse and center;

May begin and end in other positions. May be danced side or back—eg. Back and Right Chassé. May start with the trail feet and turn RF—Turn Right and Left Chassé.

In Lamberty's Adagio IV, part A begins with two left turns;; turn left and right chasse; open impetus; syncopated front vine to semi; forward hover to banjo; back whisk; pickup lady lock;

In Try To Remember by the Gosses, there is a hesitation change; turn in & right chasse; outside change to semi; chasse to banjo; to a maneuver;

Ripple Chasse

phase V

12&3;

In semi-closed position, step thru R (woman thru L) to contra banjo. The chassé begins with a side and forward L/close R with left side stretch and looking R (woman L) ("closed heads"). This stretch is the "ripple:" tipping the upper body in the direction away from that of progression. Finally, step side and forward L again blending to semi-closed position. May also end in contra banjo. In The Inner Light by the Prows, there is a drag hesitation to banjo DRC; back back/lock back in banjo; impetus to semi; ripple chasse; chair hold with sway change; back woman swivel to banjo and develope with left; link to semi; to a wing;
Tipple Chasse

also cued Back Tipple Chassé

phase V

12&3;

In closed position facing reverse line of dance, step back L (woman forward R) turning 1/4 RF. Step side R/close L with slight left side stretch. This stretch is the "tipple:" tipping the upper body in the direction of progression. Finally, step side and forward R with another 1/8 turn to face line and center in closed position.

(A "tipple" chassé is also regarded as one that turns or curves, rather than progresses in a straight line. Thus your Tipple Chassé might not "tip." It is always important not to lose good dance position—stay left; don't invade your partner's space. But a dancer may certainly choose the line or picture he would like to present.)

May begin with the trail foot in which case the turn would be LF and the ending position line and wall.

May begin facing LOD with trail feet free, in which case the cue would be Forward Tipple Chassé and the turn would be RF.


Tipple Chasse Pivot

12&3;

This is not a standard figure but a combination of the tipple chassé and a one-step pivoting action (phase II) made on the last step of the chassé: step back L turning RF (or back R turning LF), side/close with a "tipple" and turning 1/8, and then side and forward between her feet pivoting 1/2 for a total turn of 7/8; In Hope by Lamberty, there is a promenade weave;; maneuver; tipple chasse pivot; spin turn; and box finish to line and center;
Pickup

phase II

123;

In semi-closed position, step forward on the trail feet, lady turning to face partner in closed position, step side on the lead foot, and close trail to lead foot. Notice that there is no suggestion that the woman should step across in front of the man on her first step, as she turns. It is a straight step down whatever line of progression you are traveling and a turn to face. This puts her neatly on his right side in good closed position. The figure turns a little LF, depending on subsequent choreography.

In the past, the pickup was regarded as a one-step action, and the whole-measure figure was cued "pickup side close."
In Buckmaster's The Last Waltz, part A begins with a balance left & right;; twirl vine 3; pickup side close; two forward waltzes;; and two left turns to face wall;;
Slow Side Lock

phase IV

123;

In semi-closed position facing line of dance, step thru with the trail foot, leading the woman to begin a left-face turn. Step side and forward L to closed position line. On the third beat, cross right in back of left (woman LIFR) turning slightly LF.

It is really the body turn that creates the locking action. We turn the body and so drag the free foot up behind the supporting foot (and then take weight).

In the Slaters' Castles and Kings, part A begins with a forward waltz; maneuver; open impetus; slow side lock; one left turn; hover corte to contra banjo facing line and wall; outside spin; and a hover corte to contra banjo facing reverse and center;
Promenade Lock

12&3;

In semi-closed position facing line, step thru with the trail foot, leading the woman to begin a LF turn. Step side and forward L to closed position line but woman's head still open, and cross right in back of left (woman LIFR) turning slightly LF. On beat 3, step forward L (woman back R) toward line of dance. In Lamberty's Molly Maguire's Waltz, part B begins with a turn left and right chasse; outside change to semi; promenade lock; right lunge; back, back/lock, back; to a back whisk;
Rising Lock

phase V

123;

In closed position facing reverse, step back R (woman fwd L) beginning to turn LF, step side and forward L turning, and cross R in back of L (woman LIF of R) to end in closed position facing line and center; In the Bucks' Together Hand In Hand, part A begins with one left turn; back rising lock; telespin to semi;; and thru to a left whisk;
Quick Lock Slow Lock

phase V

1&23;

Often in contra banjo position facing DRW, step back R with strong right-side lead and right-side stretch (woman fwd L)/lock LIF of R (woman lock RIB of L), bk R, lk L; In Cavatina by the Bartons, there is a curved feather checking; outside spin to closed position reverse and wall; quick lock slow lock; back to a hinge;
Turning Lock

phase V

1&23;

In tight contra banjo position facing reverse and wall, step back R (woman fwd L) with right side lead and right side stretch/cross L in front of R (woman XRIB of L), back R turning LF, side and forward L to end in contra banjo progressing toward line and wall;

Sometimes cued Left Turning Lock to distinguish it from the right turning lock (below).

In I Love You Truly by the Jaworskis, there is a running open natural; turning lock; maneuver; spin & twist to semi;; to a curved feather checking;
Right Turning Lock

phase V

1&23;

In closed position usually facing RLOD, lower into the lead knee, begin to turn your frame RF, and small step back R (woman fwd L) with right-side back. That is, get that right hip out of the woman's way. Having begun to turn, this first step takes on a crossing-behind feel. The second step [on the "&" count] is the lock. Continue to turn and cross L in front of R (woman XRIB of L). The man will be facing COH at this point. On count "2" continue turning, initiate left-side stretch, and small step fwd R between woman's feet (woman larger step side L staying well into man's right arm). Finally, complete turn, use right-side stretch to open heads to semi-closed position, and step fwd L in SCP facing DLC. In It Is You by the Worlocks, there is a hinge facing COH; woman recover & pivot to closed position facing RLOD; right turning lock to semi-closed position; viennese cross; slow lock quick lock; hover corte;
Dip

phase II

123;

In closed position, step in the direction indicated, usually side and back, soften the supporting knee, and leave the free leg extended in a straight line, toe on the floor. One weight change. In open facing position, waltz away; pickup, side close; dip back; recover; box;;

In the Barbees' Feelin', there is a dip back toward COH; maneuver; waltz turns to closed line;;

Box

phase I

123; 123;

In closed position, step forward L (W bk R), side, close; back, side, close;

The first measure alone might be cued Forward Box or Forward Half Box. The second measure alone is a Back Box or a Back Half Box.

May be danced in any position. If you are in open position, both will dance fwd, sd, cl; bk, sd, cl;

Footprints
Man's Forward Half Box
Man's Back Half Box
Woman's Full Box
In open facing wall, waltz away; pick up side close; waltz box;; reverse box;; dip back; recover;

In Carolina Moon by the Rumbles, there is a thru R chasse to banjo; maneuver; spin turn; back box turning LF to DLC; to two left turns;;

Reverse Box

phase I

123; 123;

In closed position, step back, side, close; forward, side, close;

May be danced in any position. If you are in open position, both will dance bk, sd, cl; fwd, sd, cl;
In closed, wall, box;; reverse box;; waltz away and together;; repeat;;;;;;
Progressive Box

phase II

123; 123;

In closed line, step fwd, sd, cl; fwd, sd, cl; In Rockin' Alone by Hilton,  there is a waltz away; lady wrap LOD; fwd waltz; pick up; progressive box;; fwd waltz;
Open Box

phase II

123; 123;

In open or left open position, step fwd, sd, cl; bk, sd, cl;
Open Reverse Box

phase II

123; 123;

In open or left open position, step bk, sd, cl; fwd, sd, cl;
Box Finish

phase III

123;

In closed position, step bk turning 1/4 LF, sd, cl; (last measure of left turning box) In the Imamuras' Moonlight on the Colorado, there is a maneuver; spin turn; box finish; whisk; wing; and open telemark;
Open Finish

phase IV

123;

In semi-closed position, step thru R (woman thru L), forward L (woman side & fwd R turning LF), fwd R (woman bk L) to contra banjo position;

You might begin in closed position facing reverse and wall, in which case, the cue might be Back To An Open Finish. The man would turn LF too, and you would end in contra banjo facing line and center.

In Foxtrot, this figure would be called a Feather.

In Forrest Gump, by the Moores, we are in shadow position, both facing the wall, and both with R feet free. We roll 3 toward reverse and wall; shadow fence line to face line and wall; open finish woman syncopate to banjo facing line and center; to an open reverse turn; and back chasse to banjo;

From shadow position, the lady had to turn 1/2 LF during the open finish.

In De La Mer Waltz by Nolen there is a telemark to SCP; open in & out runs;; fwd 3 to BJO; open rev trn;  Here, the "fwd 3 to BJO" is an open finish or a feather.

Left Turning Box

phase II

123; 123; 123; 123;

In closed line, step forward & turn 1/4 left, side, close; back & turn left, side, close; forward & turn left, side, close; back & turn left, side, close; (face each wall of the room in turn) In the Wolffs' While We Dance, part B has a forward waltz down line; drift apart; thru twinkle twice;; left turning box 3/4;;; side draw touch to butterfly wall;
Left Turning Box With Lace

123; 123; 123; 123;

For the man, this is almost a normal left turning box. The woman has to do the "lacing."

In CP M facing wall, step fwd L turning 1/4 LF (W bk R), sd R, cl L to CP LOD;

That was the first measure of a normal left turning box. Now the man steps bk R raising lead hands and trng LF, sm sd L, cl R. The lady steps fwd L under lead hands, sd R, sd & bk L to left open position COH. She has "laced under" as he danced his back half box turning.

In the third measure, the man dances a forward half box turning and the lady continues around to face. The M steps fwd L trng LF, sd R, cl L (or a thru, fc, cl to accommodate the lady); and the W steps fwd R, L, cl R in a RF circle to CP RLOD. During this "lacy" flight, the lady can extend her arms like a swan on wing.

The last measure is bk R trng LF (Wfwd L), sd L cl R to CP wall.

I feel sure that I have seen another form of this figure, in which the lady does a lace across in measure 2 and again in measure 3. That is, she goes under twice. I can't find my reference, though, so if you know of such a dance, please let me know.

In this second version, in measure 1, the M steps forward L turning 1/4 to the left, side R, and then close L. The W does the "natural opposite" (back R turning, side L, and close R). End in CP, man facing LOD. This is a normal measure 1 of a left turning box.

In measure 2, he steps back R turning 1/4 LF so he faces COH and raises his left hand for her to go under. The W steps forward L beginning to turn RF. The second step is a small side L for the man and a forward R, walking in a circle, for her. Finally, he closes R to L and she finishes her "lace" with a forward L to end facing him again, in CP COH. Meredith tells me that this feels more like an underarm turn than a lace.

In measure 3, the M does modify his steps a little. Normally, he would step forward, side, close. Here, he steps thru L so he isn't stepping into the W but a little past her. Again, he turns 1/4 LF and he raises his lead hand for her to go under a second time. His second step is side R, and then he closes L to R to face RLOD. The woman steps forward R, L, R in a "lace" or underarm turn to end in CP RLOD.

The last measure is normal. He steps back R turning 1/4 LF, side L, and closes R to L to end in CP wall again. She does the natural opposite.

You might notice that the end result of all this is exactly the same as a standard left turning box, so you can do the lacing or not, as you like.

In the Koozers' Last Cheaters Waltz, there is a balance left and right;; vine 3; thru face close; left turning box with lace;;;; waltz away; wrap the lady; to a forward waltz;

In Bamba Waltz by Stillwell, there is a hover; thru face close; left turning box with lace;;;; twirl vine 3; maneuver;
Interrupted Box

123; 123; 123; 123;
This is a waltz box interrupted with a 2-meas underarm turn.

In closed position wall, fwd L (W bk R), sd R, cl L; raise lead hands to lead W to trn RF under lead hnds & step bk R (W fwd L comm RF trn), sd L, cl R (W continue 1/2 trn fwd R, fwd L); fwd L, sd R, cl L (W finish full trn fwd R, fwd L, fwd R) to CP wall; bk R, sd L, cl R (W fwd L sd R, cl L) to CP wall;

Note that the man dances 2 waltz boxes. During measures 2 & 3, the lady dances 1 full turn RF.
In I Love to Watch a Woman Dance by Ahart, there is an impetus to SCP; thru face close to CP wall; interrupted box to BFLY;;;; step swing; spin manuv; 2 R trns;;
Solo Left Turning Box

phase II

123; 123; 123; 123;

In facing position, wall, no hands joined, step forward and turn 1/4 LF (woman steps back). Step side and close. You will be right shoulder to right shoulder, man facing line and woman reverse. Continue turning LF: back turning (woman fwd), sd, cl; Now you are back to back, man facing center and woman wall. Forward turning, side, close; (you are left shoulder to left shoulder) and finally bk turning, sd, cl back to facing position again.
Diamond Turn

phase IV

123; 123; 123; 123;

forward and turn left to diagonal, side continue left, back to banjo position (turn 1/4 left each measure, facing each corner of room in turn); back, side, forward; for, side, back; back, side, for; Do a diamond turn;;;; open telemark; pick-up side close;

Or from Sanders' Tammy, do diamond turns to sidecar;;;; cross hover to banjo; cross hover to sidecar; cross hover to semi; cross pivot to sidecar; drag hesitation;

The Easterdays did something unusual in their Three Times A Lady: diamond turn 3, which puts you in bjo, diag wall, trail foot free;;; then check back on trail foot for a full measure; twirl vine 3 down line; maneuver;

Quick Diamond Four

phase IV

12&3;

In closed or banjo, step forward L on the diagonal and beginning a LF turn, side R continuing the turn/ back L, and back R to a designated position; In the Dois' Ave Maria, the dance ends with a diamond turn half;; quick diamond 4; corte recover; cross hover to semi; and thru to prom oversway;
Right Turning Box

phase II

123; 123; 123; 123;

In closed position, step back L (W fwd R) turning 1/4 RF, sd R, cl L; fwd R (W bk L) turning 1/4 RF, sd L, cl R; repeat;; In My Heart Belongs To You by the Wolffs, there is a left turning box to CP wall;;;; dip back; maneuver; spin turn; half box back to CP LOD; right turning box;;;; forward waltz;
Maneuver

phase II

123;

In semi-closed or banjo position facing LOD, step forward R and turn 1/4 RF, sd & fwd L and turn 1/4 , close R to L to face RLOD; In Moon River (phase IV) by the Rumbles, the dance begins in butterfly position with a roll 3; thru & chasse to banjo; maneuver; impetus to semi; to a weave 6;;
Left Maneuver

123;

In sidecar position facing DLC, XLIF of R turning LF (W XRIB of L), sd R, cl L to CP facing RLOD; In Forevermore by the Lawsons, there is a maneuver; back and right chasse to sidecar DLC; left maneuver; back and left chasse to banjo DLC; maneuver;
Spin Maneuver

phase II

123;

In open position, the man does a maneuver: fwd R turning RF, fwd L turning, close; With the first step, he leads the woman to spin LF with a backward movement of the trail hands. She spins in place L, R, L; In the Wilhoits' Jacalyn's Waltz, part A begins with waltz away and together;; step swing; spin maneuver; two right turns;; and a box;;
Right Turns

phase II

123; 123;
In CP RLOD, bk L turning RF, sd R turning, cl L to CP LOD;  fwd R (W bk L) turning RF, sd L turning, cl R to L to CP RLOD;

Each turn (each measure) turns up to 1/2 RF, as described, but we often turn less. For instance, if we turned only 3/8 per measure, we would end with the man facing wall, rather than RLOD.

We can begin this figure facing LOD if we dance the second measure first (M's R foot free) and the first measure second. Either measure may be danced individually; the cue would be "one right turn."
In Tips Of My Fingers by Palmquist, we are in CP wall. We step apart; maneuver to CP RLOD; 2 right turns to BFLY wall;; balance L&R;;
Open Natural Turn

phase IV

123;

In closed or banjo position, LOD, step forward R turning RF, step side L across line of dance continuing to turn, step back R to contra banjo position facing reverse;

Actually, the third step includes strong right-side lead such that the man's upper body will almost be facing COH (contra banjo).

May also be done from semi-closed, in which case the woman's first step would be forward.

Do an open natural; back and back/lock back; open impetus; pickup;

In the Caseys' Catch a Moonbeam, there is an open natural; back hover to semi facing line and center; rising lock; double reverse spin; and change of direction;

Running Open Natural

phase V

12&3;

This is an Open Natural Turn with an extra step, a syncopated Open Natural.

In semi-closed position facing line and wall, step thru R (woman thru L) beginning to turn RF, side and back L with left side stretch/back R with right-side lead, back L with slight right-side stretch to end in contra banjo facing RLOD;

In Married by the Shawvers, there is a maneuver; impetus turn to semi-closed; running open natural turn; rising lock; to an open telemark;
Curved Feather

phase V

123;

The Feathers are foxtrot figures, so I'm not sure how this one got into waltz. (I do know—round dancers are notorious for borrowing figures from one rhythm and using them in another.)

In semi-closed position, step forward R (woman bk L) turning right face with left side lead. Step side and forward L (woman sd & bk R) continuing to turn. On the third count, continue to turn body to a contra position and step through to contra banjo, diagonal reverse and wall.

May begin in closed or banjo positions.

In Lamberty's The Bard, there is a weave 6;; maneuver; outside change to semi; curved feather check; outside change; pickup; to a double reverse;
Running Feather To Semi-Closed

1&23;

In semi-closed position, step thru with the trail feet/fwd L staying down and leading woman to turn LF by taking left side away (woman steps thru L/sd & bk R turning to banjo), fwd R outside partner (woman back L in banjo) and rising in a hovering action and bringing left side back toward woman, fwd L (woman sd & fwd R turning RF to semi-closed); In Lamberty's Come To Me, part B begins with a syncopated whisk; running feather to semi; chasse; maneuver;
Hairpin

phase V

123;

I understand that the Hairpin used to be a waltz figure only— essentially a syncopated curved feather starting with the lead feet (1, 2/&, 3;)— and the term "feather" was reserved only for foxtrot. But the two terms are used almost interchangeably in foxtrot and waltz today.

In closed position facing LOD, step forward R beginning RF turn (woman back L), fwd L with strong left-side stretch and left-side lead, fwd R outside partner to tight contra banjo and thighs tightly crossed; The strong left-side lead makes the turn sharper, like a hairpin turn in a mountain road. In a curved feather check, you end facing DRW; in a hairpin, you are more twisted and almost facing DRC.

I have also heard the interpretation that a Curved Feather can be relatively gentle or sharply turned like a Hairpin, so the name Hairpin should be reserved for figures that are syncopated (reflecting its syncopated waltz roots?), as in "pivot to a hairpin [12&3;]. So a Hairpin might be quicker, as well as being a sharper turn.

In the Worlocks' Adagio, there is a maneuver; pivot to hairpin; back right tipple chasse pivot; spin turn; to a box finish;
Pivot To Hairpin

phase VI

12&3;

We have talked about the pivot and the hairpin above. This figure is a combination of the two—a "pivot one" and then a "quick" or syncopated hairpin.

In closed position facing RLOD, step back L (woman fwd R) and pivot 1/2 RF, forward R/L (woman bk L/R) with a strong curve to the right and with right sway, fwd R on ball of foot (woman bk L) to contra banjo position checking forward movement;

In Song Of My Life by Ross, part B begins with a maneuver; pivot to a hairpin; outside spin; back chasse to BJO;
Left Face Turning Waltz or Two Left Turns

phase II

123; 123;

In closed position facing LOD, step forward L (woman bk R) turning up to 1/4 LF, side R turning up to 1/4 LF, close L; bk R, sd L, cl R; to end facing wall or as much as LOD again.

Notice that this is not a foxtrot Reverse Turn. The more gradual rise used in waltz and the more pronounced side step do not lead a heel turn for the woman, and the amount of turn is usually less. However, in American-style waltz, the third step of each measure is a passing step, rather than a closing step, and the figure is more foxtrot-like.

Footprints
Man's Left Turn
Woman's Left Turn
In the Crapos' Fascination, there are two left turns;; whisk; chasse to banjo; fwd, fwd/lock, fwd; maneuver, sd, close;
Open Reverse Turn

phase IV

123;

In closed position, line, step forward L turning LF, side R continuing to turn, and back L to contra banjo position facing reverse;

Note that one left turn turns you 3/8 while one reverse turn turns you 1/2.

In the Maischs' Flower That Shattered the Stone, part A has a pickup; open reverse turn; outside check; to a spin & twist;;

The Rumbles' The First Day of Spring has an open reverse turn; back & chasse to banjo; curved feather check; outside swivel lilt pivot;

Quick Open Reverse

phase V

12&3;

We want to do an open reverse turn, but we have the trail foot free. In semi, we step thru with the trail foot and she begins to turn LF, forward L to closed position and both turning/side and back R turning to face reverse and center, and back L to banjo facing RLOD;

May begin in banjo or closed position.

In Pastorale by the Prows, there is an open natural turn; impetus to semi; quick open reverse; outside check; back passing change; back to a ripple chasse; and thru to a promenade sway;
Viennese Turns

phase IV

123; 123;

In closed position throughout, step forward L beginning LF turn, side R continuing turn, cross L in front of R (woman close R to L); back R turning, side L turning, close R to L (woman XLIFR) to end in closed line; One full turn.

One of the problems that arises in doing these turns on the cardinal directions (RLOD; LOD) is that we tend to separate a little from our partner in order to fit in that cross-in-front step. We stick our butts out and then hunch over our partner to compensate. Maybe worse than that, we don't quite achieve a full turn, we end the figure facing wall instead of line, and we can't then do the open telemark or double reverse spin that comes next.

We can keep our hips together more easily and our top lines apart, and we can get all the way around, if we dance this figure on the diagonal. Do the first turn to face reverse and center (woman line and wall) with strong right side lead (man's right shoulder back). Keep your left side in to your partner. In this strong contra-body position, the crossing step occurs easily and in a more flowing manner. If you have turned to face dead reverse, then the left foot crosses in front of the right with more of a clunk.

Now do the second turn to face diagonal line and wall with the man's left shoulder leading and the woman's right shoulder strongly back. Again, keep your left side to your partner. Her crossing step will flow easily.

You can dance any number of full Viennese Turns and never fall behind if the man throws his right shoulder down the line, and then his left, right, left … Focus on progressing down line with both your step and your shoulder, and the turns will happen.

The Worlocks' A Waltz In Heaven has an interesting variation. We do a cross hesitation; back passing change; to back viennese turns;; It's as if you are dancing the second measure (woman crosses) and then the first (man crosses). Their sequence then continues with an open finish; hover; and wing;
Viennese Cross

phase IV

123&;

Usually in semi-closed position facing LOD, step thru R beginning to turn LF (W thru L turning to closed position), fwd L turning (W bk R), sd R/XLIF of R (W close R) ending in closed position facing RLOD;

Notice that this is simply a preparatory step and then a quick or syncopated viennese turn. It is a way to do a one-measure viennese turn starting with the trail foot (and I do love the feel of that terminal syncopation—the 3& slips into place so smoothly).

In Precious Dreams by Molitoris & Firstenburg, there is an open telemark; nat prep to same foot lunge;; fwd hover to banjo; open impetus; viennese cross; and back to a throwaway;;
Cross Pivot

phase IV

123;

In semi-closed position, step forward with the trail foot, in front of the woman, beginning a RF turn. Step side L continuing the turn. The woman's second step is forward R between the man's feet heel to toe and pivoting 1/2 RF. On beat 3, step forward R, woman side and back, to sidecar diagonal line and wall. The man makes a full turn; the woman 1/2. May begin in closed position, in which case, the woman's first step is back. In the Slaters' Will You Remember, there is an open telemark; curved feather; back passing change; back chasse to banjo; natural weave;; cross pivot to sidecar; cross hover to semi; and weave;;
Cross Swivel

phase IV

123;

In closed position line of dance, step forward on the lead (woman back) turning LF, point the trail foot down line still turning, and step forward on the trail checking to reverse in banjo;
Slip Pivot

phase III

123;

In semi-closed position, step back on the lead foot, the woman beginning a LF turn (pivot) on the ball of her right foot with thighs locked and left leg extended. The man steps back R turning slightly LF and keeping his left leg extended forward as she continues her turn and steps fwd L just outside his R foot. This is the "slip" action. On the third beat, step fwd L (woman back R).

There is a general rule associated with slip movements that says, if there is no or only a little LF rotation of the couple, then the woman steps L outside the man's R. The man will use his frame to control this. If the man intends to turn the partnership, say, 1/4 LF, then he will guide her to step L between his feet. This will allow him to turn LF during the third step and end in closed position. If she had slipped outside his feet, the turn would have put them in banjo.

The Palmquists' Lovely Lady has a contra check, recover, side; natural hover fallaway; slip pivot; maneuver;
Lilt Pivot

phase V

1, -/&,

The lilt is considered to be a foxtrot action, but it is broadly used. It is a forward step, then a closing step and soft rise onto the toes (don't turn it into a bounce). A lilt pivot adds a little left-face rotation.

In semi-closed position with soft knees, step forward R rising and turning a little LF (woman fwd L rising and turning LF in a pick-up action to closed position), -/fwd L lowering and pivoting a little LF,

The man turns left to lead the pickup, but often he really doesn't pivot much. The "pivot" in this lilt pivot is really the woman's as she turns to face him. Keep the shoulders level throughout.

In Close Every Door by the Gosses, there is a promenade sway and change; link to semi-closed position facing line and wall; lilt pivot to a right lunge; hold roll & slip; to a double reverse;
Spin Turn

phase III

123;

In closed position facing reverse line of dance, step back L lowering and bringing the woman fwd R between his feet. Begin a RF pivot 3/8. On beat 2, step forward R between lady’s feet with a heel lead and continuing the turn on the right heel, rise up into a hovering action onto the ball of the right foot as the woman brushes R to L. Finally, recover side and back R to CP DLW. The man should control the amount of turn, depending on the choreography; the figure may be underturned or overturned. The woman allows him to do this by waiting to take her third step until she feels him begin to take his.

A second standard ending position is CP DRW, a turn of 7/8. The preferred cue is Spin Overturn.

Again, the standard figure ends DLW (5/8 turn), but the figure may underturn to face LOD or overturn to face reverse and wall or even RLOD. When the amount of turn wanted is other than 5/8 or 7/8, the cue should be, spin turn to a particular facing direction, such as wall.

The figure can begin in other facing directions, such as CP LOD. We'd end facing DRC.
Paull's Dear Heart III has a maneuver; over spin turn to face wall; and a back half box;
Spin Overturn
aka Over Spin Turn

phase III

123;

In closed position facing reverse, step back left pivoting RF, -, step forward between lady’s feet rising and completing turn, recover side and back;

End facing reverse and wall.

Sometimes, dancers feel that they can't get far enough around when they are asked to overturn a Spin Turn. The secret is in the second step. First, ladies, keep a strong left head. This will add to your turning momentum. If you pull in to your man, you can stop the rotation dead. Second, milk that beat. Don't be in a hurry to put your lead foot down. Ride the spin until you are where you need to be, and only then recover onto the lead feet. If that isn't until the "&" of beat 3, that's okay. Don't even think about that third step, and certainly don't plan a leaping or lunging side step at the end, thinking that this might take your farther around. The woman drives as she steps forward on her left. The man drives as he steps forward on his left. Right here, think of your frame as a rectangle, instead of an oval, and ladies, put your head in that back left corner. Then ride the momentum around. Let the free lead leg just hover behind the weighted leg, and you should actually feel the need to put the brakes on as you spin even to RLOD.


Running Spin

phase VI

12&3;

The term "running" refers to the syncopation in this figure. It is a syncopated Overspin Turn.

In closed position facing RLOD, step back L (woman fwd R) pivoting 1/2 RF, fwd R turning/side L (woman bk L/sd R), bk R to contra banjo facing reverse and wall;

Timing may vary, e.g. 1&23;


Spin and Twist

phase VI

123; 1&23;

In closed position, reverse line of dance, lead feet free, step back commencing RF pivot, step forward between lady's feet turning, and step side to face diagonal reverse and wall; During this first measure, you are dancing an overturned spin turn.

Now, the trail feet are free. The man hooks his R behind his L with no weight, and she steps fwd L/R around him. On beat 2, she steps fwd L turning RF and unwinding him. He changes weight as she does so. On the last beat, he steps side and back L, and she steps between his feet R. End in closed position facing diagonal wall, wall, or even diagonal reverse and wall.

In the Worlocks' Waterfall, there is an open natural; royal spin & twist to semi;; natural hover fallaway; back slip to semi; chair & slip; double reverse;
Spin and Double Twist

phase VI

123; 1&23; 1&23;

Do a spin and twist overturned to face reverse, and then do another twist turn.

One of the problems inherent in this "double twist turn" lies in the long side step L that overturns the first twist turn and prepares you to do the second twist turn. It can become an abrupt leap that disturbs the smooth flow of the waltz. Again, a twist turn for the man involves two weight changes. He hooks his right behind his left. She unwinds him. He takes weight on his right on beat 2, and then steps side L on beat 3. You can smooth out a double twist by taking four weight changes and by making the third step a progressing pivoting step. Hook R behind L taking weight/step L as she begins to unwind you. On beat 2 step forward R and pivot in a maneuver action, and then step small side L to set up for the second twist turn. The count becomes 1/&23; just as it is for the woman, and the flow is so much smoother than the usual "hook/unwind, step, leap."

In the Bahrs' Red River Waltz, there is a closed telemark; fwd, fwd/lk, fwd; maneuver; spin and double twist;;; to a back rising lock;

This is the dance in which we learned about the smoother version of a double twist turn.

Twist Turn

1&23;

Begin in closed position, trail feet free. The man hooks his R behind his L with no weight, and she steps fwd L/R around him. On beat 2, she steps fwd L turning RF and unwinding him. He changes weight as she does so. On the last beat, he steps side and back L, and she steps between his feet R. May also end in semi-closed position.
Whirligig

123; 123; 12&3;

This is a tango figure and consists of two twist turns, first the man and then the woman.

In semi-closed position facing LOD step thru R (W thru L), trn RF sd L to fc DRW (W fwd R between man's feet), XRIB of L to fc DRC (W bk L in SCP); comm twist 1/2 RF on both feet (W keep head to left walk around M bk R), cont trn (W bk L), cont trn and shift wgt to L (W bk R); walk arnd W fwd R, L/R, sd & fwd L to SCP (W XLIF of R, twist on ball of both feet/cont trn shift wgt to L, sd & fwd R) end SCP LOD;

In Moon River a waltz by the Dois, there is an open telemark; whirligig;;; thru chasse to banjo; to a traveling hover cross;;

In Serenade VI by the Dois, we go back to a throwaway oversway;; link to semi; chair & slip; telemark to semi; whirligig;;; whiplash; back whisk; big top;

Outside Change

phase IV

123;

In closed or banjo position facing reverse, step back L, back R turning LF, and then a side step to either banjo or to semi-closed facing line; When ending in banjo, the man's last step is side and forward, and the woman keeps her head closed (left) throughout. When ending in semi, the man's last step is side and back, and the woman turns her head right on the last step.

Note that, as in the closed change, this figure serves to free up the trail foot—you are "changing" from one free foot to the other.

The Moores' Haunted Guitar has an open telemark; natural hover fallaway; back check & whiplash to banjo facing reverse and wall; back back/lock back; outside change to banjo facing line and wall; maneuver; open impetus; semi chasse; and weave;;
Outside Check

phase IV

123;

In closed position reverse, step back R turning LF, side and forward L, and check forward R outside partner to contra banjo position facing reverse and wall;

May begin in other facing directions and turn varying amounts.

In the Scotts' Until, part A has a quick open reverse; outside check; slow outside swivels;; syncopated twirl to butterfly sidecar position; and fwd develope;
Outside Swivel

phase IV

123;

In banjo, step back L, leaving your trail foot extended forward. As you take the step, rotate the upper body RF, taking your left side toward her. This gets his right hip out of her way and leads her to swivel RF on the ball of her right foot and end in semi-closed position with trail feet free. There is only one weight change. In Smiling Through by Parker we dance 1 left turn; hover corte; bk bk/lk bk; outsd swivel; wing; trn left & chasse BJO;
Pivot Three

123;

In closed position, facing reverse, step back L, lowered with soft knees, toeing in, and turn RF 1/2 on the ball of your foot. The woman steps forward between the man's feet, well under, and both turn as one, remaining in closed position. Progress down line and don't turn early; take the step and then execute the turn. On beat 2, step strongly forward, still lowered, toe out. Keep your upper bodies apart; don't clutch at each other, but let momentum develop and carry you through a full 1/2 turn. Don't rush but step on the beat and only after each turn is complete. Each step must be directed down line. On beat 3, the woman drives down line to complete a full 1 & 1/2 turns. End closed position facing line. In the Palmquists' Riviere De Lune, there is a slightly infamous series of pivots. At the end, we do a double reverse spin to face line; a double reverse to line and wall; hover to semi; thru chasse; thru chasse maneuver; and pivot 6;;; Note that we get three measures for the pivots, so the count is pivot 2 and hold; pivot 2 and hold; pivot 2 and hold; apart point;
Pivot to Semi

phase III

123;
In closed position, perhaps facing RLOD, step back L turning RF leaving R leg extended in place (W fwd R between M's feet), fwd R between W's feet turning (W bk L), fwd L (W fwd R) to SCP LOD;

Note that this is a pivot 2, each step turning about 3/8, and then a non-pivoting step to SCP. Keep the knees soft throughout, and rise just a little at the end of the second step.


Reverse Pivot

phase VI

1 or &

In closed position RLOD, step back R (woman fwd L between M's feet) and spin to the left on the ball of the right foot. Stay low—no rise or fall and no sway.

In CP LOD, turn and step fwd L between W's feet spinning LF.

May progress LOD or RLOD. Multiple pivots are made by alternating the actions described above.

Back Passing Change

phase IV

123;

In contra banjo facing reverse, step back L, back R, back L; She dances fwd, fwd, fwd;

This figure is the same as a Back Feather in Foxtrot.

Sometimes this figure is curved a little LF, like the second half of a reverse wave in foxtrot.

Note that, as in the closed change, this figure serves to free up the trail foot—you are "changing" from one free foot to the other.

In Springtime On the Bayou by the Matthews, there is an open empetus; in & out runs;; pick up to sidecar; cross hover to semi; open natural; back passing change; back waltz; to an outside change;
Impetus to Semi (also cued Open Impetus)

phase III

123;

In closed position facing reverse, step back L (woman fwd R) turning RF, close R to L for a heel turn (woman sd and fwd L around man and brush right to left), fwd L (woman fwd R) to a tight semi-closed position facing line and center; Do a weave three to banjo; open impetus; chasse to banjo; maneuver;

In Waltz Tramonte by the Brittons, the dance begins with a forward waltz; maneuver; overspin turn; box finish to face DLW; impetus to semi DRW; weave 3 to banjo DLW; back back/lock back; to a back whisk;

We are so used to dancing the impetus to face line that the impetus in Waltz Tramonte can be a real "gotcha." Men, remember to step back and heel turn RF, no matter which way your are facing at the start.

Closed Impetus

phase IV

123;

In closed rev step back Lturning RF, close right in heel turn finish half turn, step sd and back to closed line; In A Waltz in Heaven by Worlock we dance an impetus to SCP; weave 6;; maneuver; closed impetus; box finish; telemark to SCP;
Reverse Impetus Turn

phase V

123;

In closed position facing RLOD, step back R beginning to turn LF (woman fwd L staying well into man's right arm), draw L to R for a heel turn sway right and close L (woman side R rising and brush L to R) turning 1/2 LF, continue turning LF on ball of L and step back R (woman fwd L) to end facing wall or line and wall; In Married by the Shawvers, there is an open natural turn; back hover telemark to semi-closed; viennese turn; reverse impetus turn; to a tipple chasse pivot; and spin turn;
Top Spin

phase V

12&3;

In closed or banjo position, step small back R turning LF 1/4 and with left side stretch (woman forward L) staying in or blending to CP, sm side and forward L trng 1/8 and preparing to step outside ptnr, sm forward R to BJO w/ rise & spinning 1/8 or more LF, and step back L in banjo;

Keep steps small. Focus on the turn, not on progression. Total turn is up to one full turn.

It seems to me that the important step is the third one. This is the spin, and in some choreography the spin is a full 1/2 turn (making one full turn for the whole figure). Given this and given that it is difficult to spin as a couple in banjo position, I have two thoughts. I think that the timing 1&23 would give us a little more time (a full beat) for the spin -- to accomplish the spin but to show it off, too. Second, that forward step should be small, and the lady's back step should be L behind R, under the body, putting her L close to his R and creating a more contained pivot point for the couple. It seems that the left sway and the smooth LF rotation throughout should lead that behind step for the lady. I'm having trouble with this figure right now, so I'm not sure that these strategies will make it more comfortable. I know I need to keep my top line back as I step forward into the spin. We're working on this one. By the way, compare this waltz top spin to the foxtrot top spin (use the index) -- totally different, and the foxtrot version is much easier.

Our teacher recently compared the waltz top spin to the tumble turn, which is the same back R trng LF, sd & fwd L trng/fwd R rising and pivoting LF, and then fwd L to the tumble rather than bk L as in a top spin. So, the final step is very different in these two figures. As I have said, the steps of the top spin are smaller, and the focus is more on the turn, on the spin. In the tumble turn, there is more progression. But we often feel very comfortable in a tumble turn, and I'm going to try to use whatever technique I have in that figure to make the top spin flow more smoothly.
In Romeo & Juliet by Moore we dance an open nat trn; outsd spin; top spin; back to hinge;
Right Lunge

phase IV

1,

In closed position, trail feet free, soften left knee (woman right knee), move to the side and slightly forward onto the right keeping left side in toward partner, and as weight is taken on right, flex the right knee and turn slightly LF and look at partner. In the Kincaids' Skye, part A begins with diamond turn 3/4;;; right lunge recover slip/ turn left and right chasse; outside change to semi; and natural weave;;
Right Lunge Roll and Slip

phase V

123;

Begin in closed position, often facing line and wall, with the trail feet free. Flex the left knee and lower, step side and slightly forward R between her feet (woman steps side and back L), flex the right knee, and stretch the left side to produce a little right sway. The sway will close her head: she will look left and he will look right. On the second beat, rotate the upper body up to 3/8 RF, lowering just a little more to help you get your lower body back under yourself, and recover L rising and rotating LF. This is the "roll." Then slip the right foot past the left for a back R (woman draws L to R and slips forward L) turning LF and lowering again to closed position facing line and center.

This figure can be softened (made easier) by taking up to two measures. The extra time allows you to extend the right lunge during one of the additional beats and to display the roll and create a high line during another.

In Forrest Gump by the Moores, we have an example of the extended figure mentioned in the second paragraph at left. In part A, there are two double reverse spins;; forward right lunge; roll recover slip; to an open telemark;
Back Back/Lock Back

phase III

12&3;

In banjo position facing reverse, step back L, bk R/ lock LIF of R (woman RIB of L), and bk R;

This is a figure where shoulder lead really contributes to comfort and ease of execution. Men, keep your right shoulder back. Your hips and belly button should be facing DRC and your partner, not RLOD, past your partner. Women, your left shoulder is forward. Your hips are oriented toward DLW and partner. You are not oriented square to the line of dance but are angled, "slicing" your way down line. The advantage of this angled body orientation is that the locking steps occur easily. The free foot is lined up with the supporting foot, so when you bring it up it naturally runs into that supporting foot and locks. If you dance this figure more side-by-side, man facing RLOD and woman facing LOD, then your free foot is to the side of your supporting foot. To lock it, you must move it laterally, swing it around the supporting foot and hook it. It is an awkward effort. In a sliced position, the lock is a smooth result of the step itself.

In Come Along With Me IV by the Reads, there is an open impetus; thru semi chasse; chair & slip; forward & right chasse; back back/lock back; back turning whisk; weave;;
Forward Forward/Lock Forward

phase III

12&3;

In banjo position facing line, step fwd R, fwd L/ lock RIB of left (woman LIF of right), and forward L; In Amazing Grace by Doi, there is a weave to semi;; natural hover fallaway; slip pivot to banjo; fwd fwd/lk fwd; and a closed wing;
Twirl

phase II

123;

Step forward L to semi-closed position (woman fwd R turning RF 1/2 under lead hands), fwd R (woman back L completing underarm turn), both close to face;

Notice that the man is doing a Forward Waltz down line, and the woman is doing a roll-three under joined lead hands, also down line. Some awkwardness to watch out for is veering away from your partner. Especially during the "roll" the woman can lose track of direction and veer toward the wall or even into her man. It is also helpful if the man will keep his lead hand open so than the woman's fingers can turn in his palm. If he grips her hand, it can hurt.

After a twirl, you might pickup, forward, close; to left turns;;
Reverse Twirl

phase II

123;

With lead hands joined and trail feet free, step fwd R toward reverse (woman turn LF 1/2), XLIB of R (woman back R completing reverse underarm turn), both close; In Send In the Clowns by the Nelsons, part B begins with 2 left turns to butterfly;; balance left; reverse twirl 3; thru twinkle twice to banjo;; outside swivel;
California Twirl

123;

This is really a basic square dance figure done in four steps, but it is also done in three steps as a phase II waltz figure. In open position, trail feet free, raise joined trail hands and walk R, L, R; curving RF around the woman. She walks L, R, L; curving LF under the joined hands. You end in open position facing reverse, the man on the outside of the circle.

Let me add that it is easily adapted to other rhythms. In two step, we dance the figure qqs; qqs;  The key is to do it with trail hands joined, lady under trail hands, ending in OP.
In the Tirrells' Waltz Serenade, part A begins with a waltz away; California twirl; back waltz to face and man facing center; side draw; thru twinkle; maneuver to closed position facing line; back right turn to face wall; side draw; and repeat;;;;;;;;
Twirl Vine

phase II

123;

In left open facing position, wall, the man steps side and raises lead hands. The woman steps side and forward, turning 1/2 RF. He crosses RIB of L, and she steps side and back L turning another 1/2 to face, then both step side. In Eddins' Could I Have This Dance, part B begins with a twirl vine to semi; rock thru, recover, close to face wall; box;; dip to the center; recover to sidecar diagonal reverse; twinkle to banjo diagonal wall; twinkle maneuver to closed position reverse; and two right turns to face wall;;
Reverse Twirl Vine

phase II

123;

A twirl vine to reverse line beginning with trail feet: The man steps side R, raising lead hands and bringing them between partners. She steps side and forward turning 1/2 LF. He crosses LIB of R, and she steps side and back turning another 1/2 to face, and both step side.
Syncopated Underarm Turns

123; 12&3; 123; 12&3;

Underarm Turns are more Latin in nature than Smooth. This figure might better be called "Syncopated Twirls." But round dancers are certainly not shy about borrowing both figures and terms.

This figure is essentially an Open Reverse Turn; back chassé to a syncopated Reverse Underarm Turn; Open Natural Turn; and back chassé to a syncopated Underarm Turn;

Begin in closed position facing line and center. Step forward L (woman back R) turning LF, side R continuing to turn, and back L to contra banjo position facing reverse; step side and back R (woman fwd L) turning, sd L/cl R raising lead hand (woman fwd R/cl L turning LF under lead arms), sd & fwd L (woman bk R) to contra banjo facing line and wall; forward R turning RF, step side L across line of dance continuing to turn, step back R to contra banjo position facing reverse; sd & bk L (woman fwd R) turning, sd R/cl L (woman fwd L/cl R turning RF under lead arms), sd & fwd R (woman bk L) turning to a facing position LOD;

In the Clements' Plaisir D'Amour, the dance begins with syncopated underarm turns to a handshake;;;; check forward woman develope; back half box to line and center; to one left turn;
Wheel

phase II

123; 123;

In banjo, step fwd turning RF, fwd, cl; fwd, fwd, cl; (complete turn stay in bjo throughout)

Sometimes the wheel is done with all fwd steps and therefor more progression and perhaps less rise and fall.

A syncopated wheel might be danced with a tempo of 1&2&3&;

In the DeFores' Lynn's Waltz, part C begins in butterfly banjo wall with a banjo wheel 6 RF to sidecar;; and then wheel LF to face wall again;;
Standing Spin

-2&3&; 1&23;
(12&3&; 1&2&3;)
The standing spin is not a standardized figure but a general term for any compact run-around in which partners are in an upright, high body-rise position. It can turn LF or RF with few or many steps. So it is a syncopated wheel but very tight and compact and with high body poise.

Here is one version: In BJO DLW with lead feet free the man initiates RF upper-body turn and the lady steps forward R. Now we have same footwork, and both trip lightly, compact and high, in a tight RF circle, L/R, L/R, L/R. In all, we might wheel 2 full turns. The man has taken 6 steps, the lady 7. The man finishes with 2 final steps (2,3) and the lady dances 3 (2&3) completing the wheel and transitioning back to opposite footwork. We might end where we began: BJO DLW ld ft free. Note that we are both running and we are "spinning" around a central point located between partners.

Another option would have the man standing on the ball of his R foot while the lady runs tightly around him, again remaining in BJO throughout. It would be something like a man's royal spin or horse and cart. The man is indeed both standing and spinning, rather than wheeling -- a better representation of the name of this figure -- but I have never seen it used this way.
In Sahara by Sechrist we have the first version. We dance a quick telemark to SCP; thru to slow whiplash BJO;; standing spin to BJO LOD;; back hover to SCP; feather;
Lace

phase II

123;

With lead hands joined, step fwd L (W fwd R), fwd, cl; the man turning to the right and passing on a diagonal path behind the woman and the woman turning to the left and passing in front of the man, under his lead arm, to LOP. The man moves from the inside of the circle to the outside.

This figure is specifically cued "lace across" when the man moves from the inside of the circle to the outside and when the woman passes under lead hands. Often, we will be asked to "lace back," and the man will move back to the inside of the circle and the woman will pass under trail hands.

Lace Up consists of four measures: lace across; forward waltz; lace back; forward waltz;

In the Whymans' Lovers Waltz, part B begins with a waltz away & together;; vine 6;; canter twice;; solo roll 6;; lace across; forward waltz; lace back; forward waltz to face wall; box;;
Hesitation Change

phase IV

123;

In closed position facing reverse, step back L (W fwd R) turning RF, step side continuing to turn and rise, draw the lead foot to the trail and touch ending in closed position facing line and center;

May begin in other facing positions. Total turn varies from 1/8 to 1/2.

In the McCues' Waltz To Sorrento, part A begins with a hover; thru chasse to banjo; maneuver; hesitation change; and diamond turns;;;;
Change of Direction

phase IV

123;

In closed position facing line and wall, step fwd turning LF, fwd with right side stretch, draw no wt to line and center; (two weight changes, end with lead feet free) Follow with a turn left and right chasse or diamond turns.
Heel Pull

phase IV

123;

In closed position facing RLOD, step back L (woman fwd R) starting RF turn, continue to turn on L heel and pull right foot back to left and change weight, hold; Usually ends facing line and center, feet slightly apart. In Change Of Seasons by the Blackfords, there is an outside check to banjo position facing reverse and center; heel pull and hairpin; again; to a back chasse woman syncopated underarm turn to left open facing position facing line and wall; for a hover;
Drag Hesitation

phase IV

123;

In closed position facing line of dance, step fwd L (woman bk R) turning LF, sd R turning, and draw L to R no weight ending in banjo position facing diagonal reverse and center;

May begin in other facing positions. Total turn is about 3/8.

In the Palmquists' Riviere de Lune, there is a maneuver, side, close; spin turn; back, side, close; drag hesitation; back, bk/lk, bk; open impetus; to a promenade weave;;
Hover

phase II

123;

In closed position, man facing wall, step forward L (W bk R), forward & a little side R rising to the ball of the foot, side & fwd L to SCP LOD;

The second step, rising, and perhaps prolonging that step, by borrowing just a bit from the previous or from the next step, is the "hovering" action. You float on air for a moment and may brush lead to trail foot. May be done from other facing directions, but the effect is a little LF turn. (Contrast with the hover telemark, which tends to direct us a little RF.)

May start in banjo position -- blend to CP during the first step. May be danced from other facing directions.
In Antichi Ricordi Waltz by Molitoris, we roll 3 down line; thru side close; hover; pick up; to 4 slow viennese turns;;;;

In Sailing By by Woodruff & Dierickx we dance an outside spin to a R trng lock;; Thru Hover to BJO; back hover to SCP; wing
Closed Hover

123;

In closed position, step fwd L, sd & fwd R rising and turning slightly RF, rec L staying in closed position; In Lamberty's Jean, there is an open impetus; running natural weave to a box finish;; closed hover; box finish; to two left turns;;
Running Hover

phase VI

12&3;

The word "running" can imply quick steps or it can mean to add a step to a figure through the use of syncopation. In the running hover, we want to do a hover, but we have the trail feet free. In banjo, we would step forward R (woman back L) and then do a quick syncopated hover: fwd L to closed position/fwd & sd R with right side stretch, and fwd L to a tight semi-closed position;

The figure can begin and end in a variety of positions.

In Embassy Waltz by Palmquist there is a curving three stp; bk & L chasse BJO; running hover to SCP; open nat; outsd spin;
Back Hover

phase III

123;

In closed position, step back, side and back with slight rise, and then recover; May start with either foot. In the Palmquists' Marilyn, Marilyn, from closed position facing reverse, there is an open impetus; forward hover to banjo; back hover to semi; pick up, side, close; to two left turns;;
Hover Telemark

phase IV

123;

In closed position facing wall, step forward L, fwd & side and rise brush lead feet turn RF, recover and lower to semi line and wall; Scott's Tears in My Eyes has a diamond turn 1/2;; to a back hover telemark; chasse to semi; and a weave six to banjo;;
Back Hover Telemark

phase IV

123;

In closed position facing reverse line of dance, step back L (W fwd R) turning RF, step side and fwd rising and continuing to turn, small step to semi facing diagonal line and center, trail feet free.

The beginning orientation can vary. The man turns up to 3/8; moving from CP to SCP, the woman will turn more, up to 5/8.

In Adios by Cullip we maneuver; impetus to SCP; weave 3 to BJO; back hover telemark; weave;;
Hover Corte

phase IV

123;

In CP RLOD step back R (W fwd L) turning LF, side L turning and rising in a hovering action, recover back R and lower to bjo LOD;

We can also dance this figure starting with the lead feet and turn it RF, and we can dance it from other facing directions.
Brownrigg's Christmas Wishes begins part A with one left turn; hover corte; to a back, back/lock, back;

In Waltz Across Texas by Wicksted, there is a maneuver; hover corte twice;; outside change to semi;

Note that in this second example, the first hover corte turns RF and the second is almost standard (we begin the second one in SCAR LOD).
Reverse Corte

phase VI

123;

This is a hover corte in which the man takes only one step. It can have an elegant, soaring feel.

In closed position, perhaps facing RLOD, step back R (woman fwd L) turning LF, continue to turn on the right foot now with right sway (woman fwd R turning), turn to contra banjo and touch L to R (woman close L to R);

In Andante Waltz by the Howards, there is a maneuver; back turn right and check in sidecar DLC; reverse corte; to a back weave 3;
Cross Hover

phase III

123;

This is a progressive figure with each step being taken along a diagonal. May begin in banjo with the trail feet free. The woman may brush her free foot to the supporting foot at the end of the second step. The figure may end in semi-closed position if so cued. In this case, the woman will turn strongly at the end of the second step and her last step will be forward.

In sidecar position, step fwd L (W bk R) with slight crossing action and beginning to rise and turn LF, side and fwd R completing 1/4 turn, diagonally fwd L to banjo position lowering at the end of the step;
A popular sequence is to begin in a facing position, lead feet free, and cross hover to banjo; cross hover to sidecar; cross hover to semi line; Then you might step thru, face, close to face wall; whisk; maneuver; impetus to semi; and pick up;

In Rose Of Tralee by the Glenns, there is diamond turn to sidecar;;;; cross hover to banjo; maneuver side close; spin turn; box finish;

Cross Hesitation

phase IV

123;

In semi-closed position facing line of dance, both step thru with the trail feet, and the man uses LF body rotation to lead the woman to step side R around the man turning left. She continues to turn and closes left to right to end in contra banjo, man facing reverse and center. One step for the man and three for the woman.

May begin in other facing positions. Total turn varies from 1/4 to 3/8.

In I Love You Truly by the Jaworskis, there is a back passing change moving down LOD; hover corte; back back lock back moving RLOD; outside swivel; cross hesitation; outside change to semi; slow side lock; double reverse;
Hover Fallaway

phase III

123;

In semi-closed position line of dance, step forward on the trail foot, forward with a slight rise and checking, and then recover back on the trail foot, remaining in semi. The "fallaway" step is the step back in semi-closed position. You might do an open telemark; hover fallaway; slip pivot to banjo; and a fwd, face, close;
Natural Hover Fallaway

phase IV

123;

In semi-closed position, step forward on trail foot turning RF, forward again continuing to turn and rising (woman stepping between his feet), and then recover back on trail foot still progressing down line and still in semi; Total turn is 1/4 to 1/2. Each step progresses; no step moves to RLOD.
The Wisemans' Manuela Waltz has an open telemark; natural fallaway; slip pivot; and fwd, fwd/lk, fwd;
Reverse Fallaway

phase IV

123;

In closed position, line, step forward with the lead (woman back) turning LF, step side, and then cross the lead in back of the trail to end in a tight V semi position facing reverse and center;

May also be done from semi-closed, line. We would step thru with the trail foot turning LF, forward L continuing to turn (woman back R), and then back on the trail foot again to a tight V semi position;

In the Dois' Ave Maria, part A begins with a rev fallaway; slip chasse to banjo; fwd fwd/lk fwd;
Fallaway Ronde and Slip

123;

In closed or semi-closed position, step R turning upper body RF & ronde L CCW (W step L turning to semi-closed position & ronde R CW), back L well under body in SCP (W bk R), slip the lady to closed position turning body LF as R slips behind L (W swivel on R turning LF to face M slip fwd L); In London By Night by the Gosses, there is an open impetus; quick open reverse; back to a promenade sway; change sway; fallaway ronde and slip; to a curving three step;
Reverse Fallaway and Slip (aka Reverse Fallaway and Slip Pivot)

phase V

12&3;

In closed position facing diagonal line and center, step forward L beginning to turn LF (woman back R), side & back R turning to tight semi-closed facing reverse or even reverse and wall/step back L well under body (woman back R beginning strong LF pivot on right toe, slip R past L pivot on R and lower (woman slips L fwd pivoting to closed position); On step two, keep left side well toward woman (woman step side L and keep right side toward man) to maintain dance position and not drift apart. It even feels like the man's R hip is catching the lady's L hip, and on steps 3 & 4 he will help turn her with this contact. The amount of turn varies, depending on the next figure, but a common ending orientation is diagonal line and wall. If the amount of turn is big, the lady's slip will be between the man's feet. The syncopation may vary: &123; 1&23; 123&; In the Shibatas' Coney Island, the dance starts with a together touch; box finish; reverse fallaway & slip; open telemark; big top to face reverse; cross swivels to semi LOD; open natural; out side spin;
Three Fallaways

phase VI

123; 123; 123;

In CP DLC step fwd L with R shoulder lead and with right-side stretch (W bk R turning LF). Sd R to SCP RLOD and then back L well under the body. We still have sway toward RLOD. This is our first of the three fallaways. Second measure: step back R turning LF and bring the lady to CP RLOD with no sway. On beat 5, step back and side L with left-side stretch = right sway (W side and back R) to RSCP facing RLOD, W on the outside of the circle. Step back R well under body (W bk L). We have danced the second of our three fallaways on counts 456. Now turn LF and step fwd L to CP LOD with right-side stretch = left sway, side R turning, and back L well under body to SCP RLOD. We have danced the third fallaway on counts 789.

This figure is comfortably danced if we pay attention to our positions and make our SCP and RSCP properly tight. Each roll across becomes a tight slip and fold to the next position with little separation between partners. Notice that the standard figure is linear, progressing down LOD, first to SCP, then RSCP, and finally SCP, all facing RLOD.  If we start facing DLC and  end RLOC, the total turn is 1 3/8. The amount of turn may vary.

In the ballroom world, three fallaways is not a linear figure. It makes conspicuous use of the diagonals, and you might enjoy this little different shape. Specifically, the first four steps progress toward diagonal line and center (DLC). Steps 5 & 6 go down LOD, and then steps 7, 8, & 9 move toward DLW. "Like the shape of a frying pan," says one of our teachers. If you can imagine looking at the pan in cross-section, edge-on, we dance down the slanted side of the pan, across the flat bottom, and up the other side. We move diagonally in and then diagonally out again. It's a gentle flow, the changes from SCP to RSCP and back are a little easier, and it's a nice alternative to straight down LOD.

Here is a detailed description that emphasizes the diagonals. In CP DLC, step forward L (W back R) turning LF 1/4 and with right side stretch (woman left side). Step side R in SCP facing DRW, and cross lead foot in back of trail foot. The second fallaway begins with a step back R still toward DLC and turning to CP with no sway. The woman steps forward L and slips to closed; she is facing LOD. Step side L directly down LOD, now with left side stretch, leading W to step side and back R to RSCP, and cross trail foot in back of lead with a strong LF "wind-up" in the torso as in a left whisk. The man is on the inside of the circle. Finally, step forward L (woman back R) toward DLW turning LF now with no sway. The man is rolling across to the outside of the circle. Both step side with the trail foot and then cross the lead foot behind to SCP facing DRC. The total turn here is 1 1/4.

You might be tempted to dance the first and third fallaways the same, but the ballroom figure is designed to consist of three different fallaways, the first with left sway, the second with right sway, and the third with no sway.
In Evening Star by Sandeman, there is a chair & slip; three fallaways;;; back to a tumble turn; back to an outside check;
Whisk

phase III

123;

In closed position facing wall, step forward, forward and side rising, both hook behind rising to semi-closed facing DLC; In Are You Lonesome IV by Chico, the dance begins in SCP trail feet free with a left whisk; thru chasse to reverse; thru to whisk; prom weave;;
Syncopated Whisk

phase V

1&23;

In semi-closed position, step thru with the trail foot/close and face partner, rise and step side with slight right side stretch, and cross lead behind trail in tight semi-closed position lowering again;

One of the pitfalls in this figure is making the second step a side step. You are progressing with the thru step, and somehow you want to keep going. Don't. Close, face, and step side on the third step. The closing step allows for a cleaner rise and fall.

In Flying Dreams by the Cantrells, there is an oversway; chasse toward RLOD to a whisk line; syncopated whisk; quick weave 4; and back to a left whisk;
Back Whisk

phase IV

123;

In closed wall, he steps back L, back and side R, and then both cross lead in back of trail finishing in semi-closed position. In Romeo IV Juliet by Oren, part A begins with an open reverse turn; hover corte; back whisk; weave 3 to banjo facing DRC; back and chasse (W twirl 3) to CP DLC; to a double reverse spin twice;;
Back Turning Whisk

phase V

123;

In closed or contra banjo position facing RLOD, step back L toward diagonal wall and turning RF (woman fwd R), side R continuing to turn to semi-closed position facing diagonal center, and cross lead foot loosely in back of trail with soft knees;

May begin in other facing directions; usually turns 1/4 to 3/8 RF.

In Come To Me by Lamberty, there is a thru chasse to semi; maneuver; back turning whisk; syncopated whisk; running feather to semi; chasse; maneuver; to a tipple chasse pivot;
Left Whisk

phase IV

123;

In semi-closed position, lower and step thru with the trail feet, step side and slightly forward L (woman side and slightly back R) to closed position, and then cross trail foot behind lead to end in a reverse semi-closed position;

As you take steps 2 & 3, your hips will be turning RF (woman LF), but your upper body should lag behind, producing a strong LF "wind-up" in the torso. Stay flat - does not have the strong rise of the normal whisk. The ending position feels like a hinge for the woman.

In A Time for Love by Shibata we dance a dbl rev spin; curving three stp; bk to left whisk; lady run around & prep for a same foot lunge;;
Swivel Whisk

phase V

123;

In banjo position, step back L with right side lead allow trail foot to move slightly left in front of lead foot and begin to rotate upper body RF (woman fwd R beginning to turn RF), continue body rotation (woman sd L outside partner turning & staying well into man's right arm), swivel slightly RF (woman swivel RF and cross RIB of L) to end in tight semi-closed and "whisk" position;

Note that the man has only one step, and the woman has three. The man rotates about 1/8, and the woman turns 1/2.


Wing

phase III

123;

In semi-closed position LOD, step thru with trail feet, draw L to R no wt (woman forward R around man turning LF), touch L (woman forward L turning to sidecar position) (1 wt change, woman 3);

There is just a little LF rotation here, so in semi, the man begins facing line and wall. At the end, he might be facing LOD or even line and center.

In the Whymans' Mira Four, part B begins with one left turn; back waltz; two right turns;; whisk; wing to sidecar; cross hover to banjo; cross hover to sidecar; and cross hover to semi;
Quick Wing

1&23;

Here, we do the Wing (see above) on the first two beats and hole the third beat. Using this syncopated timing allows us to form a shapeful sidecar position and to display that picture. In the Vogts' All Kinds Of Everything, there is an open natural; back turning whisk turning RF to semi-closed position facing line and center; quick wing and hold; to an open telemark;
Progressive Wing

phase IV

123;

In semi-closed position, step thru with trail feet beginning a small LF turn, step forward and side continuing to turn and leading the woman to step forward R around man, and then cross right behind left as woman steps forward L around man to end in contra sidecar facing line or line and center;

Notice that the wing involves only one step for the man and so doesn't progress much. The progressive wing involves three steps for man and woman.


Closed Wing

phase IV

123;

In a closed or banjo position, he steps forward R and she back L. He draws left to right and rotates his upper body LF, leading her to step side R across the man, and finally she steps forward L to sidecar position. One weight change for the man and three for the woman. In the Prows' When Will I, part A begins with a hover telemark; running open natural; back and chasse to banjo; closed wing; open telemark; ripple chasse; curved feather;
Continuous Wing

phase VI

3; hold; hold/&;
(12&3&; 1&2&3&;)

This is a two-measure figure, but the man's first step onto his left foot is considered to be the last step of the previous figure.

So, at the start of the measure, he is on his left facing wall, and he simply turns his upper body sharply to the left and spins on his left for two measures. The woman steps forward L tightly around the man with a strong left head, fwd R/L, fwd R/L; fwd R/L, fwd R/L, fwd R/

On the last "&" count of the second measure, the man closes R to L, and the woman takes her last run fwd L to end in sidecar position facing reverse line of dance having turned 1 & 3/4 LF. The man may paddle around with his R to aid the turn.

The amount of turn, number of steps, and timing may vary.

In How Sweet the Sound by Broadwater, there is a running open natural; bk to a hinge; swivel to a same foot lunge line; sd to continuous wing;; check fwd rec sd to SCP DLC;; thru semi chasse;

Note that in this example the man is not on his L at the start of measure 1 -- he steps L on beat 1. Also, the lady's timing is 1&2&3&; 1&2&3.

In Close Every Door by Goss, there is a double reverse spin; split ronde wing to SCAR DLC; continuous wing to SCAR DLC; closed telemark;

Again, the man steps L on beat 1 and only 1 measure is used. The timing for the lady is 1&2&3&. Indeed, the details of the continuous wing "may vary."
In and Out Runs

phase IV

123; 123;

In semi-closed position, trail foot free, step fwd turning RF, side and back (woman forward between man's feet) to closed reverse, back right to bjo; back left turning, side and forward between woman's feet turning, both forward to semi; In the Shibatas' Liebestraum No. 3, there is a maneuver; open impetus; three in & out runs;;; to a syncopated outside underarm turn to butterfly sidecar; check recover side to bolero banjo;
Open In and Out Runs

123; 123;

In semi-closed position, trail feet free, release lead hands and step thru, man turning RF, step side L continuing to turn and scooping partner up with man's L under woman's R arm, step side and forward R continuing to turn to left half open position facing line of dance; In the second measure, the woman comes across as the man did, ending in half open position facing line. In the Hurds' Senza Fine, part A begins with an open telemark; open in & out runs;; thru & syncopated vine to semi; open natural; outside spin; to a hover corte;
The Square

123; 123; 123; 123;
In semi-closed position, trail feet free, release lead hands and step thru, man turning RF, step side & fwd L continuing to turn to face COH and scooping partner up with man's L under woman's R arm, forward R blending to left half open position facing COH; In the second measure, the woman comes across as the man did, ending in half open position facing RLOD; repeat measures 1 & 2, first to left half open position facing wall and then to half open position facing LOD.

The Square is a slow two step figure where it begins with the lead foot and consists of four underturned switches, turning 1/4 LF each measure. In waltz, it begins with the trail foot and consists of four underturned open in and out runs. In waltz, the figure has been called "square the runs," which is a nicely descriptive name. We'll see how the standardization discussion goes.
In Cup of Love by Kincaid we dance an outside change to SCP; thru twinkle 2X;; thru chasse SCP; square the runs;;;; fwd hover BJO; bk hover SCP;
Develope

phase IV

1, -, -;

In banjo, line, step forward L outside partner checking. She steps back R and then brings the left foot up the right leg to the outside of the right knee and extends the left foot forward. The Develope is actually the knee, and kick; In the Rumbles' A Brief Romance, we do a maneuver; overturned spin turn to face reverse and wall; back & chasse to banjo facing line and wall; cross pivot to sidecar; check forward woman develope; Then, we step back (woman fwd) and hover out to semi; thru, sd, behind; roll 3;
Double Develope

1, -, -; 1, -, -;

In the Shawvers' Sam's Song, you are in closed position facing diagonal line and center with trail feet free. For the first develope, the man steps forward R with a little left side stretch and RF upper body rotation. This turns the woman to sidecar position as she steps back on her left, and then she developes with her right toward reverse and center.

For the second develope, he crosses L behind R with a little right side stretch and LF upper body rotation. This turns her to banjo as she crosses R behind L and swivels LF to develope with her left toward reverse and wall.

There are three features of the sequence, given at right, that are unusual. First, there is the overturned outside spin to get you in position facing line and center. Second, a typical develope begins with a step outside partner. You might be in banjo, you step forward R, she steps back L, and she developes; or you are in sidecar, you step forward L, and she steps back R and developes. In Sam's Song, we are in closed position, and we have to arrange a little swivel, first right, then left, so she can develope outside of you. Third, she is doing her develope with the outside foot. Usually, she uses the inside leg, closer to the couple's center of gravity and so maybe more easily on balance. More than the question of balance, and especially if you have good contra body position, a develope with the inside leg might have a bit of the feel of a leg crawl, as she raises her thigh against your supporting leg, just before she extends the knee. A develope with the inside leg simply has a different feel, which makes the double develope feel different.

In the Shawvers' Sam's Song, we are in semi-closed position, line of dance, trail feet free, and we do an open natural; outside spin overturned; double develope;; link to semi-closed; progressive wing; and double reverse twice;;
Outside Spin

phase V

123;

This is a Spin Turn begun outside partner. The man must initiate his right turn early, because the woman has a greater distance to go.

In contra banjo, facing reverse and wall, turn upper body RF leading woman outside man and maybe sneaking a very brief look in her direction, and take a small step back with lead foot. The toe of the left foot might be at the instep of the right and toed in. On this first beat, the woman takes a large step around the man turning RF maybe 3/8 and rising to her toes. On beat 2, the man steps around the woman with a strong heel lead (unusual in waltz on the second step), turning another 3/8, and he should not be looking at her at this point. He needs to shift left back into good dance position. He rises into a hovering action, and she does a toe spin on her right and changes weight to left at end of beat. This spin is up and hovering. Let it extend into beat 3, and at the end of beat 3, he steps side and back lowering, continuing to turn, and she steps forward between his feet with a toe exit to closed position. The total turn could be as much as one full turn.

Cunningham's Moulin Rouge has a diamond turn one half checking;; to an outside spin; and then a box finish; repeat;;;; The sequence begins diagonal line and center and ends the same.

Or here is an exercise from one of our teachers: in semi line, trail feet free, step forward and hover to banjo diagonal wall; outside spin full turn; box finish to diagonal center, closed telemark to diagonal wall; outside spin to diagonal reverse and wall; box finish to diagonal wall;

Royal Spin

phase V

123;

Again, in banjo, usually reverse and wall, turn upper body RF leading woman outside man, and take a small step back with lead foot. The toe of the left foot might be at the instep of the right and toed in. On this first beat, the woman takes a large step around the man turning RF maybe 3/8, just like the beginning of an outside spin. On beat 2, the man steps outside the woman with heel lead, and she continues to turn in a toe-spin (like a heel turn but on the R toe, rondes her left foot CW and raises the left knee to bring the left foot to the right knee, toes pointed down, no weight change. This leg movement is like a reverse develope. Instead of "knee/kick" (develope), swing a straight leg and then knee. During the spin, expand the top line, that is, keep the upper bodies apart, and allow momentum to develop. On beat 3, he brings his left foot under his body with left side lead and steps side and forward to contra banjo, and she lowers her foot to a touch. The end of this leg movement feels like a leg crawl. Three steps for the man and one for the woman; one full turn.

This is one of those figures where the woman takes a step and then simply spins in place, as the man steps around her. Others are the Tornillo Wheel and Ballerina Wheel in Latin. Since the woman is fixed at the center of a circle, the man must step exactly on the circumference of that circle. His steps must curve. They must not go "fwd/turn, fwd/turn" in a sort of square, but "curve, curve" in a circle with left side lead. Otherwise the woman will be pulled over, this way and that. It's especially tough in Smooth, because you are in contact and have less chance for adjustment. In Latin, there is space between your bodies, so you can adjust with the arms if the feet go astray.

Chardonnay is a wonderful waltz by the Easterdays. There is a left turn; hover corte; royal spin; maneuver; open impetus; and pickup to a double reverse spin (1, 2&, 3&;)
Chair

phase III

also called a Forward Poise Chair

1

In semi-closed position, line of dance, trail feet free, simply step thru with a slight lunging action and soft knees.

The curve of that trail leg should suggest the leg of a Queen Anne chair.

In the Howards' Andante Waltz, there is a very nice chair facing reverse and wall, recover, hold; to a promenade weave from this unusual position but ending as usual line and wall; to a maneuver; and hesitation change;
Back Poise Chair

1

In the Forward Poise Chair above, you continue to look forward and your torso has "forward poise." In a Back Poise Chair, you step thru with the trail foot and at the same time look back with a little sway to reverse. In the Shibatas' Edelweiss, there is an impetus to semi; back poise chair recover point to reverse; forward poise chair recover slip; to a double reverse;
Chair and Slip

phase IV

123;

In semi line fwd trail foot soft knee, recover woman swivel LF, bk woman fwd to closed position line; In the Scotts' Melody of Love, part A begins with a weave six to semi;; chair and slip; drag hesitation; open impetus; thru, face, close; twist vine; fwd, face, close; hover;

Bucks' All in the Game begins in butterfly, wall, trail feet free, with a thru syncopated vine 4; chair & slip; and then a left turn; to a hover corte;

Contra Check

phase V

1

In closed position, lead feet free, lower into your right knee (woman left), begin LF rotation, and slide the left foot forward. Your left foot is moving forward as your right side is leading strongly. This is the contra body action. Of course, the woman is lowering and stepping back R, allowing her toe to slip across the floor. His left thigh is actually pushing into her right thigh. Only when she feels the man stop and begin to change weight, will she stop that slipping foot movement and take weight herself. She must wait. The LF rotation causes the man to turn his left foot out. If he is facing DLW, his toes will be pointing LOD. This angled foot placement helps a great deal in maintaining balance. The woman steps straight back R, but her CBM causes her left foot to angle out and may turn her right foot a bit in. All four feet end up pretty much in one straight row (her R, his L, her L, his R), but the foot angles and the tight contact at the thighs helps maintain balance. Hips are in—toplines are well apart—heads left.

Timing varies. A slow contra check can easily span a whole measure.


Contra Check and Slip

phase V

123;

In closed position, lower into the right knee (woman L), begin to rotate upper body LF, and step forward L (woman back R). Keep your hips in and up and your shoulders well apart. On beat 2, recover R, and then slip back L (woman fwd R).
Contra Check and Switch

phase V

123;

In closed position, lower into the right knee (woman L), begin to rotate upper body LF, and step forward L (woman back R) in strong contra-body position. Keep your hips in and up and your shoulders well apart. On beat 2, recover R beginning to turn RF, and then slip back L (woman fwd R) continuing to turn about 1/4.
Traveling Contra Check

phase VI

123;

In closed position perhaps facing line and wall, step forward L with right-side lead (woman bk L turning RF) [contra body motion], close R rising to toes, fwd L to end in semi-closed position;
Vine 6

phase II

123; 123;

In closed position facing wall, step side, both behind, side; through, side, behind;

May be danced with lead feet progressing toward LOD or with trail feet progressing toward RLOD and in other orientations.


Twisty Vine 3

phase II

123;

In closed position facing wall, step side L (woman side R), man cross in back woman in front to sidecar position, side to closed position;

May begin with either foot and may be danced in any number of steps, to be specified in the cue.

In Somewhere My Love by the Martins, the dance begins with a twisty vine 3; thru face close; solo waltz turn;; twirl vine 3; to a pickup;
Telemark to Semi or Open Telemark

phase IV

123;

In closed position facing line and center, step forward L beginning to turn LF (woman back R). On beat 2, step forward and side R turning as woman draws L to R and pivots on her right heel and then shifts weight to L (heel turn). As in a double reverse spin, the man uses early rise to help lead this heel turn. At this point, you should be in good closed position, man facing reverse and wall. These steps are steps 1 and 2 of a foxtrot reverse turn. On beat 3, simply use a little right-side stretch to open the woman's head, and step toward line and wall in semi-closed position. Figure may also begin in banjo or sidecar. In Caro Mio by the Sheridans, there is an impetus to semi; pickup sd cl; telemark to semi; open natural; impetus to semi;
Double Telemark

phase VI

123; 1&23;

This figure is two open telemarks in a row, and the "&" count allows you to pick her up on the "one" and then dance a second "quick" telemark.

So, in closed position facing line and center, step forward L (woman back R) beginning to turn LF, side R turning and with right side stretch (woman bk L to R for a heel turn), sd & fwd L to semi-closed position facing LOD;

On the "1" of the second measure, both step forward on the trail foot with a heel lead. After taking weight, the man starts LF body turn, picking the lady up and the lady turns LF to CP. On the "&," step fwd L (lady bk R) turning, sd & fwd R (woman back L to R for a toe spin), fwd L (lady fwd R) to SCP facing DLW;

Another timing pattern that works, although it might rush the second telemark turn itself, is 123; 12&3;

Telemark to Banjo or Closed Telemark

phase IV

123;

In closed position, line and center, step forward L beginning to turn LF (woman back R). On beat 2, step forward and side R turning as woman draws L to R and pivots on her right heel and then shifts weight to L (heel turn). At this point, you should be in good closed position, man facing reverse and wall. These steps are steps 1 and 2 of a reverse turn. On beat 3, continue turning, maintain left-side stretch to keep her in closed position, and step toward line and wall in good contra banjo position. Figure may also begin in banjo or sidecar. In Greensleeves by the Rotscheids, there is a maneuver; hesitation change; closed telemark; natural hover cross;; to an open telemark;
Natural Telemark

phase V

123;

Begin in closed position facing line and wall, trail feet free. Step forward R beginning to turn RF (woman back L), side L with left side stretch (woman draws R to L for a heel turn and changes weight) completing 1/4 turn and borrow a little time to extend this beat and comfortably make the turn, continue to turn and step side and forward R (woman side and back L) to end in closed or sidecar position facing line and center;

May begin in banjo and in other orientations; normally 3/4 RF rotation.


Double Natural Telemark

12&3; 123;

As the name implies, this figure consists of two natural telemarks, but in order to do the second one, you have to syncopate the first, in order to have the proper foot free. So, in closed, banjo, or semi-closed position facing line and wall step forward or thru R (woman back or thru L), forward and around L turning RF (woman fwd R between his feet) to closed position/ step side and forward R continuing to turn (woman side and back), and small step L outside partner to sidecar (woman bk R). At the end of the first measure, you could also be in closed position. Your trail foot is free again. Now step R between her feet turning RF, forward and around L (woman does a heel turn) so that he faces center, and forward R small step to closed or sidecar position facing line and center; In Lamberty's Papillon, there is a maneuver; tipple chasse pivot; spin turn; box finish; open telemark; double natural telemark to a samefoot lunge;;; hover transition to banjo and an outside change to semi;

Telespin To Closed

phase VI

123&; 123;

Start in closed position facing line and center. Step forward L turning LF and with left sway (woman bk R with right sway) , fwd & sd R turning (woman draw L to R for heel turn and change weight), sd & bk L with only partial weight maintaining sway and keeping left side forward (woman fwd R) to a tight sidecar position;

In this first measure, the woman has done an open telemark, but the man has held back and not taken that third step.

On the final & of the first measure the man leads the woman to step fwd L. He finally takes weight on his L and spins LF (woman fwd R to a toe spin), side R turning (woman closes L at end of toe spin), back L (woman fwd R) to closed position RLOD;

The figure turns 1 3/8 LF.

I believe that this represents the first description of the Telespin that we have had in round dancing. More commonly, we now dance a Telespin to Semi or a Telespin to Banjo (see below).


Mini Telespin

phase V

123; &123;

This is the same figure as the telespin to closed, except the last step is a touch instead of a back, leaving the lead feet free.

So again, start in closed position facing line and center. Step forward L turning LF and with left sway (woman bk R with right sway) , fwd & sd R turning (woman draw L to R for heel turn and change weight), sd & bk L with only partial weight maintaining sway and keeping left side forward (woman fwd R);

At the end of the first measure, the man leads the woman on an "&" count to step fwd L. He finally takes weight on his L and spins LF drawing R to L (woman fwd R to a toe spin), close R lowering (woman closes L at end of toe spin), hold ending in closed position reverse and center;

One attractive thing you can do in the telespin figures is to keep your shoulders turning, once you have initiated the turn. Don't execute the appropriate turn in the first measure, pause, and then whip into the second measure spin. Maintain smooth upper-body rotation over the whole two measures.

The figure turns 1 1/4 LF.

A common exit is a contra check and switch; perhaps to a half natural;
Telespin To Banjo

phase VI

123&; 123;

Start in closed position facing line and center. Step forward L turning LF and with left sway (woman bk R with right sway) , fwd & sd R turning (woman draw L to R for heel turn and change weight), sd & bk L with only partial weight maintaining sway and keeping left side forward (woman fwd R) to a tight sidecar position;

In this first measure, the woman has done an open telemark, but the man has held back and not taken that third step.

At the end of the first measure the man uses upper body rotation to lead the woman on an "&" count to step fwd L. He finally takes weight on his L and spins LF (woman fwd R to a toe spin), side R turning (woman closes L at end of toe spin), side & fwd L (woman sd & bk R) to banjo position facing line and wall;

The figure turns 1 3/4 LF.

In Senza Fine VI by the Hurds, there is an outside spin and prep; to a same foot lunge; recover woman swivel and develope; woman forward spiral to a same foot lunge line; telespin ending to banjo; to a maneuver;
Telespin To Semi-Closed

phase VI

123&; 123;

Start in closed position facing line and center. Step forward L turning LF and with left sway (woman bk R with right sway) , fwd & sd R turning (woman draw L to R for heel turn and change weight), sd & bk L with only partial weight maintaining sway and keeping left side forward (woman fwd R) to a tight sidecar position;

In this first measure, the woman has done an open telemark, but the man has held back and not taken that third step.

At the end of the first measure the man continues to turn and so leads the woman on an "&" count to step fwd L. He finally takes weight on his L and spins LF (woman fwd R to a toe spin), side R turning (woman closes L at end of toe spin), sd & fwd L (woman sd & fwd R) to semi-closed position facing DLW;

The figure turns 1 3/4 LF.


Double Telespin

123; &123; &123;

Start in closed position facing line and center. Step forward L turning LF and with left sway (woman bk R with right sway) , fwd & sd R turning (woman draw L to R for heel turn and change weight), sd & bk L with only partial weight maintaining sway and keeping left side forward toward W (woman fwd R);

On the "&" count, the man uses LF body turn to lead the woman to step fwd L. He takes weight on his L and spins LF (woman fwd R to a toe spin), side R turning (woman closes L at end of toe spin), sd & bk L with only partial weight (woman fwd R);

On the "&" count, the man again leads the woman to step fwd L. He takes weight on his L and spins LF (woman fwd R to a toe spin), side R turning (woman closes L at end of toe spin), back L (woman fwd R) to closed position facing reverse and center;

The figure turns 2 & 1/4 LF.

As in the case of the telespin, we often dance the double telespin to semi-closed or to banjo and so turn it 2 3/4 LF.

In Violette by the Nelsons, there is an open reverse; open finish to banjo position facing DLW; change of direction; double telespin to CP facing RLOD;;; back chasse to banjo; to a maneuver;
Teleronde

phase VI

123; 123;

In closed position facing line and center, step forward L turning LF with left sway (woman bk R and draw L to R for a heel turn), fwd R turning (woman heel turn and close L), sd & bk L keeping left side in toward woman (woman fwd R); spin LF on left foot (woman step fwd L keeping right side in to the man lift R leg up straight forward and ronde LF), step side R turning, back L to closed position reverse and center;

This is essentially a Telespin with a woman's ronde in the second measure. One important difference is that the man takes full weight on his third step and uses only upper body rotation to lead the woman to step, kick, and spin.

Of course, the second measure is the tricky part. The count is 123, but we are only taking two weight changes, and we take them at different times. The man only spins on count 1 and steps late on 2 and 3. The woman steps on 1 and 3.


Natural Hover Cross

phase V

123; 12&3;

The Hover Cross is really a foxtrot figure, but it can be used in waltz if syncopation is introduced.

In closed position, diagonal line and wall, step forward R beginning to turn RF (woman back L), side L turning (woman heel turn), side R completing 3/4 turn to face line and center in contra sidecar; step forward L on toe outside woman with right side stretch, recover R/side and forward L, fwd R on toe outside partner in contra banjo with left side stretch; The last four steps of this figure are known as a hover cross ending.

May begin in banjo or in semi-closed position, in which case the woman's first two steps would be fwd L, fwd R,

The syncopation may be varied: 123; 123/&; or 123/&; 123;


Continuous Hover Cross

phase VI

123; 123; 123;

Where the Natural Hover Cross consists of 7 steps, the Continuous Hover Cross consists of 9. It "continues" for two more steps.

In closed position, diagonal line and wall, step forward R beginning to turn RF (woman back L), side L turning (woman heel turn), side R completing 3/4 turn to face line and center in contra sidecar; step forward L on toe outside woman with right side stretch, close R and move woman to closed position facing line and wall, step back L in contra banjo; back R beginning LF turn and blending to closed position, side L, fwd R on toe outside partner in contra banjo with left side stretch and facing line and center;

May begin in banjo or in semi-closed position, in which case the woman's first two steps would be fwd L, fwd R,


Weave to Semi

phase IV

123; 123;

In semi-closed position facing line and center, step fwd with trail feet, fwd L (woman side R turning LF to closed position), side and back L (woman forward R) to closed postion facing reverse; back L to banjo, back R turning LF to closed position wall, both side and forward to semi line and wall; In the Worlocks' No Walls, part A begins with a forward waltz; maneuver; spin turn; hover corte; back, back, lock back; impetus to semi; weave to semi;; to a chair & slip; and telemark to semi;
Weave to Banjo

phase IV

123; 123;

Begin in semi-closed position facing line of dance with your trail feet free. Both of you step thru toward line (man forward right and woman forward left). The second step is forward left for the man beginning to turn to the left. The woman begins to turn left and steps side right to end in closed position. So the second step is a "pickup," but the man has turned too, so you aren't closed position facing line; you're more facing diagonal center or even center. Then the third step is side and slightly back for the man, still turning. The woman keeps turning and steps forward on her left. At the end of the first measure, you should be in closed position, man facing about reverse.

Now the second measure. You're in closed position facing reverse with your lead feet free. The man steps back on his left (woman forward right), turning his body and tilting his upper body (or swaying) a little to the right to put the woman into banjo position facing reverse and wall or maybe even wall. The fifth step is back right (woman forward left) to closed position facing line and wall. The last step is side and a little forward on the left foot with left side leading (woman side and back right) to end in banjo facing line and wall. Your trail feet are free

The Moores' Romeo & Juliet has a left turn; check and weave to banjo facing line and wall;; natural hover cross with syncopated ending;; open telemark; chair recover slip;
Natural Weave

phase V

123; 123;

From closed position, banjo, or semi-closed, the man steps forward R turning RF (woman bk L (from semi, she will step forward L)). In the second step, she draws R to L and he steps side L with left side stretch leading a heel turn, and she changes weight at the end of the turn. At this point, you have turned about 1/4 RF and are in closed position facing DRW. On the third beat, step back R with right side lead (woman fwd L).

In the second measure, step back L with right side stretch into contra banjo (woman forward R outside partner). Step back R turning LF to closed position wall. Finally, step side and forward L (woman side R) with left side leading to banjo position facing diagonal line and wall.

In Serenade by the Rumbles, part A begins with a maneuver; pivot 3; right turning lock; bounde natural weave to a tumble turn;; back ronde (woman run around) to a throwaway oversway;;;
Whiplash

phase IV

123;

In SCP LOD, step thru with the trail foot turning RF and leading woman to swivel LF to face partner in closed position wall, point lead feet to side. One weight change.

A Whiplash To Banjo is more common, in which the man turns less and the lady turns more, to BJO DLW or even BJO LOD. Here it is clear that the lady is the "whip." The man uses LF upper-body rotation and strong R sway to snap the lady into a strong, 3/8, LF turn to BJO. The man's head is right and the lady's head is strongly left (closed).

May be done in other facing directions.
In The Moon For You by Armstrong, there is a hover telemark; whiplash to bjo; bk bk/lk bk; slo outside swivel;
Sway

phase II

1, -, -;

Step to the side with either foot taking partial weight and stretching that same side of the torso and lifting that hip and so inclining away from the stepping foot. As you take full weight, straighten the body and so "lose the sway" and draw the free foot a little toward the supporting foot.

"Sway" is really a general term that simply refers to inclination or tipping of the body, in this case, away from the direction of the step. Be careful not to overdo -- do not kink or crunch the opposite side of your body in your effort to tilt. Only gently lift the "stretching" side.

In Coronado Sunset by Oren, the dance begins with a sway left; sway right; into diamond turns;;;;

In Once You Had Gold by Dierickx we start with sway L&R;; roll 3 to SCP; chair & slip;
Promenade Sway

phase IV

1,2,

With lead foot free, step to the side, down line of dance, turn to semi, stretch the right side of the body a little (woman left), look up and over the joined lead hands, and then relax the lead knee. One of our teachers used to say to the men, step down line and look at your watch. The idea is to get your gaze and your body shape up and out. In Lamberty's Come To Me, part A begins with an open telemark to a promenade sway; change sway; ronde and fallaway to banjo; slow outside swivel; open natural;

Lamberty does this a little differently. Rather than doing a standard open telemark, opening out at the end of step two and both stepping side and forward to semi-closed, he asks us to step back L on the third step (woman fwd R) and only then lead with the left side blending to a tight semi and promenade sway. This change gives us a much tighter connection and better lead into the sway.

Oversway

phase IV

1,

In closed position, step side on the lead foot leaving the trail leg extended, relax the lead knee, stretch the left side (woman right side) and rotate a little left-face. Very ofter, we will do a promenade sway (semi-closed) and only then change to an oversway. The ending position is always closed. The Worlocks' Starlight Waltz ends with a sequence beginning in semi-closed, trail feet free. We step thru to a syncopated vine 5 and touch blending to closed position (1&2&3&); side to promenade sway; change to oversway;
Change Of Sway

phase V

timing varies

To change sway, you must have sway, that is inclination of the body to one side or the other. Changing sway is inclining the other way, and it is accomplished by stretching the side of the body previously unstretched and rotating the hips. For instance, the promenade sway involves right side stretch and left sway; you are inclined down line. Changing that sway involves lowering into the lead knee, stretching the left side and so inclining the torso more toward reverse, and finally rotating the hips a little CCW. Scott's In a Perfect World V begins part A with one measure of a diamond turn to banjo, diagonal reverse and center; slow turn left in one step and touch lead foot; promenade sway; change of sway; Then one could step through, chassé to semi; maneuver; hesitation change;
Throwaway Oversway

phase VI

1

You might precede this figure with a back step ("back to a throwaway oversway"). You'd be in closed position facing reverse and wall, trail feet free. Step back R with left sway and turning LF, and then step side L to execute the figure. The man points his left toe where he wants her to "throw" her left foot. He might step side L and turn his foot to point diagonal line and wall or a little farther toward line. She steps side R. The man changes to right sway and rotates the hips and torso CCW to move the woman's left leg back, and then quickly begins to lower by flexing the left knee so that she won't take weight on that foot but will continue to move it back behind her, exposing the sole of the foot to passers by. (NOTE: If you rotate the hips in your "up" posture until she gets her trail foot under her, and only then begin to lower, she will change weight, and your subsequent lowering will put her into a hinge.)

The man's motion is a little like "bowling the foot down the alley." It is a little more elegant for her to slide her foot back with the inside of the big toe touching the floor, rather than the tip of that toe. Look at your partner lovingly.

This is a good place to think again about maintaining your whole frame. This "bowling" is rotation of the frame to the left. The man's right hip and right shoulder go forward. His left hip, left shoulder, and even the left arm and hand go back. Don't move any one part of the body by itself, but keep the parts of the frame toned and rotate the whole frame as a unit. This action gives the woman the space to dance her figure and prevents him from pushing on her (with his left hand) in an interfering way.

In Flying by the Sechrists, there is a reverse fallaway & slip; open reverse turn; to a slow throwaway;; and change to a same foot lunge line;
Double Reverse Spin

phase V

12-;
(12&3)

In closed position facing diagonal line and center, step forward L ( woman back R) and begin strong LF body turn. On beat 2, step forward R thru the woman's left side. She has drawn her L to R, and the man's early rise (more like foxtrot than waltz), his rotation, and his pushing thru her as through a turnstile, leads her heel turn. At the end of beat 2, she changes weight to her left foot. On beat 3, the man continues to rotate but simply draws his left foot to his right with no further weight change. The woman steps side and back R and quickly crosses her L in front of R to end in closed position line of dance. There are two weight changes for the man and four for the woman.

Different choreography calls for more or less rotation in a double reverse, and the step that controls the amount of rotation is the man's second step. Again, you begin facing diagonal line and center. Imagine a straight line drawn from your position on the floor out toward line and center. Your first step should be forward on that line. The man's second step is also forward (the woman's second step is a draw/heelturn/close). If the man steps a bit to the right of the line, the double reverse will spin about 3/4; on the line about 7/8; and a bit to the left of the line a full turn. The man must never take his second step straight down line or she will not do a heel turn, and you will end up with some kind of open reverse turn, the woman choked in the man's armpit.


Footprints
Double Reverse Spin
In the Dois' Limelight, part A begins with a reverse fallaway to banjo; back & quick rising lock; double reverse spin; turn left & right chasse; and a back turning whisk to semi facing line and center;

The interesting thing about this sequence (and much of the rest of this dance) is that each figure except the last (the whisk) is syncopated (12&3;). We see that waltz does not have to be 123; 123;

Double Reverse Overspin

phase VI

12-&;
(12&3&)

This figure calls for a lot of rotation in only one measure of music. You will turn as much as 1 and 1/2 LF. Do a full Double Reverse Spin, as described immediately above. Then the man and woman both take an additional step with the lead foot, turning. Lower into that lead leg to coax additional turn, and you will end in closed position, facing reverse line of dance, trail feet free. In the Shibatas' Le Cygne, part B begins with a reverse fallaway and slip; double reverse overspin; and back to a throwaway oversway; The sequence calls for almost three full turns over three measures.
Continuous Double Reverse Spin

12-; 12-; ---;
(123&; 123&; 1&2&3&;)

In closed position facing line and center, step forward L (woman back R), turn LF and step side R/continue turning and draw L to R (woman close L to R for a heel turn), continue spin on R (woman continue turn and step side & back R/ turn and cross LIF of R) to closed position facing line and center; repeat measure 1; hold with weight on ball of R foot spinning LF (woman turn LF and step side R/ XLIF of R, side R/XLIF of R, sd R/XLIF of R) to end in closed position facing wall;

The timing at left shows weight changes — four for the man and 14 for the woman.

In the Rotsheids' Greensleeves, there is a maneuver; spin turn; box finish; continuous double reverse spin;;; whisk; and a slow side lock;
Checked Reverse & Slip

phase VI

123;

In closed position facing line of dance and center, step forward L (woman back R), fwd R on toe turning LF and with right-side stretch and checking forward motion (woman close L to R and rise onto toes turning LF), now turning RF recover back onto L (woman turn and slip R fwd to closed position) and continue to turn RF to end in closed position facing line and wall;

You can think of this figure as the start of a reverse turn, check it, and then slip back close to where you began. Sometimes the cue will be checked double reverse and slip. This is the start of a double reverse spin, check it, and slip back to where you started. The checked double reverse turns a little more that the checked reverse, but they are very close to being the same figure.


Double Natural Spin

phase VI

12-;
(12&3)

You might think that the double natural would be a mirror of the double reverse (above), beginning with the trail feet, but it is a little different. We do begin in closed position, facing line and wall, trail feet free. The first step is forward R (woman back L) beginning strong RF body rotation. The second step also almost mirrors that of the double reverse: the man steps side and back L thru the woman's right side and beyond an imaginary diagonal line drawn between the starting point and diagonal line and wall; and she draws her R to L, executes a heel turn, and then changes weight. During beat 3, the man draws his R to L, does not change weight, and here gives a little extra upper-body rotation and opens his right side to lead the woman to step side and forward L around the man and quickly forward R outside partner to contra banjo position. Remember, in the double reverse, we ended in closed position. The Bahrs' Red River Waltz ends with a forward on the trail feet and chasse to semi-closed position; slow side lock; double reverse; check reverse & slip; double natural spin; check natural & slip; and an open telemark to a throwaway oversway;;
Checked Natural & Slip

phase VI

123;

In closed position facing line of dance, step forward R (woman back L), fwd L on toe turning RF and with left-side stretch and checking your forward motion (woman close R to L and rise onto toes turning RF), turn LF and recover back onto R (woman turn LF and slip L fwd to closed position) and continue to turn LF to end in closed position facing line and center;

You can think of this figure as the start of a natural turn, check it, and then slip back close to where you began. Sometimes the cue will be checked double natural and slip. This is the start of a double natural spin, check it, and slip back to where you started. The checked double natural turns a little more that the checked natural, but they are very close to being the same figure.

In Open Arms by the Vogts, part B starts with diamond turns checking;;;; to an outside spin; checked natural & slip; double reverse; and a closed change;
Hinge

phase V

123;

From closed position, step back on the right foot and turn 1/4 LF. Step side on lead foot with strong left side stretch, continue to rotate hips LF, leading woman to collect her trail foot and change weight. His left and her right hips are tight together. Flex left knee to lower and cause her right foot to slide forward, leg straight. With left-face upper-body rotation, you end in closed position with man's left knee flexed and his right leg straight and extended to his right, and woman's left knee flexed and her right leg straight and extended in front of her, parallel with his. She is almost sitting on his left thigh. Both torsos are up, not lunged or inclined.

May begin in semi-closed position, in which case the first step is forward for both.

This standard hinge is a Left Hinge, as she is on his left side. A Right Hinge would be a mirror image with her on his right side and left legs extended.

In Change Of Seasons by the Blackfords, there is a hover; quick open reverse; hinge; change to a same foot lunge line;

In Once You Had Gold by Rotscheid we dance a telemark to SCP; thru to slo open hinge;; [note: 2 measures] hover exit SCP; nat hover fallaway;

In Red River Waltz by the Bahrs, there is a maneuver; pivot 3 to face COH; step to eros line; change to a right lunge line (no weight change); back and turn right to a right hinge line facing DLW; and modified wing to sidecar DLC;

Same Foot Lunge

phase VI

1

Where the hinge has the right legs for both extended on a strong diagonal, the same foot lunge has the left legs extended into an attractive picture figure.

Begin in closed position with trail feet free. Since this is a "same foot" figure, we have to do a transition. Often, the cue is "prep for a same foot lunge." The "prep" is a slight rise and right face rotation causing the woman to rise to her toes and change weight to her left foot. She has rotated a little RF but not as far as to semi-closed position—you are still closed. Her right knee is tucked just behind her left knee. Her right hipbone needs to settle into the hollow of his right hipbone (inside his right hip). Both now have right feet free. Now we can do the figure.

Lower in the left leg, push, and step side and slightly forward R with right-side stretch and looking right. Give her your right side—that will close her head (woman steps back R turning LF and looking well left—very like a contra check step for the woman). The man's left leg will be extended to the side, straight and strong. The woman's left leg will be crossed in front of her right and extended on the same diagonal as the man's. Keep your hips well in to your partner. Again, you are in closed position (not an L-position).

In many ways, this figure is like a right hinge (see above), but we have not lowere into an upright sit position. We have lunged or inclined — our upper bodies are extended to the man's right.

The position that you have assumed as a result of a same foot lunge is called a Same Foot Lunge Line. One "steps" into a same foot lunge, and one simply "lowers" into a same foot lunge line. More specifically, a prep to a same foot lunge involves one weight change for the man and two for the woman. Lowering into a same foot lunge line involves no step for the man. He is on his R foot already, and he simply lowers into position. The woman transitions by closing her R to L (one weight change), and then she lowers into position.

In the Bartons' Someone Like You, part B begins with two double reverse spins;; whisk; thru face close; contra check; hold recover back; back & chasse to semi; maneuver preparation; same foot lunge; hinge; open impetus;
Ronde and Slip

phase VI

123;

In closed position facing wall, ronde the left leg counter clockwise and cross behind R with left sway and no weight change (woman ronde R CW and XRIB of L), back L and rise turning LF with no sway (woman bk R turning LF), slip back R (woman fwd L near man's R) to closed position;
Rudolph Ronde

phase VI

1, -, -;

In closed position, diagonal line and wall, step fwd between her feet, lowering with something of a chair-like feel. Your right knee will tap the inside of her right knee, leading the actual ronde. Turn your upper body sharply RF with left side stretch and left side lead, and then check that action by flexing the right knee while keeping the left foot back. She will step back L, turning to semi, and ronde her right leg CW but keeping right side in to man. Her right leg will cross behind, no weight change. Theoretically, the man can lead the height of her ronde with the degree of lift in his body, making the ronde quite aerial or letting it just skim the floor. He can also lead the duration of the ronde with the speed of his upper body rotation: just one beat or extend it over a whole measure.
Rudolph Ronde and Slip

phase VI

123;

In closed position, diagonal line and wall, step fwd between her feet, turn upper body sharply RF with left side stretch and lead, and then check that action by flexing the right knee while keeping the left foot back. She will step back left, turning to semi, and ronde her right leg CW but keeping right side in to man. Her right leg will cross behind, no weight change. On beat 2, the man recovers with a straight back step on the left, and the woman steps back R and pivots LF to face the man. On beat 3, he steps back R turning LF, and she slips her L just outside his R to closed position line or line and center. In the Rumbles' Whistling in the Dark, the dance begins with a step forward to closed position; back to a hinge; woman recover and pivot; rudolph ronde and slip; to a telespin;; and chasse to banjo;
Split Ronde

phase VI

123; (12&3;)

This figure begins in closed position, both with left foot free. Turn a bit so knees are outside but not fully to banjo, lower on the right and push the left forward to ronde the left leg CCW turning LF. On count 2, cross the left behind the right continuing to turn (on the & the woman steps side and back R), then slip back R (woman fwd L) to closed position; The woman is doing a little circular vine -- don't pull away from partner. The amount of turn is about a half, often from diagonal line and wall to diagonal reverse and center. Certainly, the usual pattern is double reverse to a split ronde. At the end of the double reverse spin, stop your rotation for good balance, lower a bit and turn just a little RF to lead the woman to release her right foot and change weight (her count for the double reverse becomes 12&3&), and then proceed with the split ronde.

In the Hurds' Senza Fine VI, there is a reverse fallaway & slip; double reverse; split ronde; to a contra check and extend;

Eros Line

phase V

1, -, -;

In closed position, facing line of dance, lower on lead foot and step side R between woman's feet, commence slight upper body turn RF. Woman steps side L. Use right-side stretch and rise to cause woman to raise R leg, bend R knee, move R knee back, and turn the R leg out so that the right calf, toe, and heel are all parallel to the floor. She does not so much lift the knee as send it back from the hip. She has left-side stretch with head well right.

The Eros Line is a one-step figure with some similarity to a Rudolph Ronde. The man steps side and forward R between the woman's feet, rotating the upper body RF, which leads the woman to open her body and lift her right leg. In a Rudolph, the man follows through with his left side and gives left-side stretch. This action lifts her leg and causes it to swing pretty wide in a CW ronde. To lead an Eros Line instead, he stops his CW motion and uses right-side stretch, instead of left-side. It's as if he begins to lead her into this big, dramatic ronde, but then he changes his mind and checks that action. She does raise her right leg, flexes that knee, but instead of rondeing, she only moves the right knee back and turns the leg out so the right toe and heel are parallel to the floor. That is the Eros Line. It is not a big movement. It is a more static pose. Again, the man led the Eros by stepping side R but checking his CW motion and using right-side stretch and left sway to raise her leg but not ronde it.

In the Shibatas' Tonight, there is a double reverse spin twice;; contra check to banjo; maneuver; pivot 3; to an eros line; change to a right lunge line; change to a hinge line;

This is an interesting sequence. To change the Eros Line to the R Lunge Line, the man simply changes from left sway to right sway. There is no footwork, no change of weight. He loses the left sway, straightens his body, rotates a little LF. She lowers her R leg and straightens with him. Then the right sway puts both into a right lunge line. He looks right; she looks left.

Big Top

phase VI

123;

or 123
(1&-3)

In semi-closed position diagonal line and center, step through R (woman L) beginning LF spin in a lowered position. This first step almost feels like a chair. He tucks his left knee behind his right knee and so leaves his lead foot behind him as he spins on his R. Stay lowered here. Early rise will stop the spin. Quickly on the & of the first beat, the man uses upper body rotation to lead the woman to step fwd R toeing in to the center, around the man's left side, much like a wing, and she commences a toe spin. Now with the feel of a split ronde, rise, spinning in place. On beat 2, he crosses LIB of right. The woman continues her toe spin. On beat 3, he slips a small step back R, and she slips forward L to closed position diagonal line and wall.

The big top is an unusual figure in that the timing is different for the man and the woman. Both step on beat 1 but the woman takes her second step quickly on the & of 1, while the man waits as the spin occurs. He may even draw out the spin to the & of 2 and then quickly do the slip on 3. The Prows, in Pastorale, extend the spin even more and give a count of 1-3& for the man and 12-& for the woman. We can describe this timing with the mnemonic, "we, she, he, we."

In With You I'm Born Again by Lamberty (1992), there is a maneuver; impetus to semi; big top; fwd & right chasse; outside change to semi;
Rumba Cross

phase VI

1&23;

In closed position, facing line of dance, step forward L (woman back R). Knees are soft. Use strong left side lead and left side stretch. On the "&" cross right in back of left (woman left in front of right). Use a Latin Cross action with the heel leading, R toe to L heel, making a momentary "7" and turning RF up to 1/2. By the way, it seems that we call this a "rumba" cross because it begins with this brief latin feature in an otherwise "smooth" figure. On beat 2, step back L still with left side stretch, pivoting RF 1/2. On beat 3, step forward R to closed position (no sway). Standard amount of total turn is a full turn but may be under or overturned. In the Bartons' Cavatina, there is a maneuver and pivot 2; rumba cross twice;; to a traveling contra check;
Tumble Turn

phase VI

1&23;

In CP RLOD, trail feet free, step back R lowering and beginning to turn LF. Step side and back L; the woman strongly side and forward R to remain in closed position. On 2 the man sneaks his R across to a contra banjo line of dance and rises with right side stretch, opening her head; she crosses behind. Lead feet brush up to trail as both swivel on the trail to face center, and he steps forward and lowers into a "contra" closed position COH or DRC.

This last step is actually the "tumble" action, and the figure might be more accurately called an "open finish to a tumble ending." It is a little like a contra check. The actual step is shorter, but she has stepped side and back to move from tight contra banjo to closed, and he steps forward into her with right side lead (contra), lowering.


Opposition Points

phase VI

123;

In closed position, lower on the right foot with right-side stretch and extend the left leg to the side. Note that the man and the woman extend the same leg and so point in opposite directions. May be done with the right legs and left-side stretch.

The action itself involves no weight change, but entry and exit steps may be choreographed. These steps, body position, and head positions all may vary.

One might do a maneuver; open impetus; and then forward to opposition points;

To execute that last figure, the man would step forward R on beat 1, turn to face partner and wall and lower into the opposition points during beats 2 & 3. The woman would have to step forward L and quickly close R, doing a transition (1&), and then similarly lower to opposition points on 2 & 3.

To get out of this picture figure, the cue might be: rise, -, man close; back half box to face line; telemark to semi;

Double Opposition Points

123; 123;

This figure comes from the Shibatas' Tonight, a phase V waltz. In part A, we do an open telemark; curved feather check; and then dbl opposition pts;; The choreography departs from the standard action, but it retains the basic feature of pointing in opposite directions.

From contra banjo, reverse and wall, the man recovers L and the woman recovers R. He draws R to L leading the woman to swivel RF on her R and to draw her L to R. He flexes his L knee and extends his R leg to the side and back toward DLC with left sway and looking toward DRW. She flexes her R knee and extends her L leg thru twd DRW with R sway and looking DRW. We are not in closed position but more semi DRW. His L is extended to the side, as in the standard action, but hers is crossed thru. But the two legs are extended in opposite directions. There was one weight change for each.

That is the first opposition point. To do the second, he rises on his L, draws R to L, and closes R turning slightly LF to face DRW. She rises on her R and pivots LF on her R. He continues to turn to face DLW, flexes his R, and extends his L side and back toward DLC with right sway looking DRW. She continues to rotate on her R to face DRC, flexes R, and extends L side and back toward DRW with L sway looking DRW. There was one weight change for the man but no weight change for the woman. (The cue sheet does allow two weight changes for the woman rather than the smooth pivoting action.)


Jete Point

phase V

&1

In a loose closed position and on the "&" of the previous beat, step small fwd L (woman bk R) onto the ball of the foot, sharply lower, and extend the trail foot with the inside edge of the foot in contact with the floor. Both sway and look right (woman left) toward the extended leg.

If beginning in SCP, the lady will step fwd R and pick up to CP and then lower as described above.

The step is a springing step. Often, you will begin in semi-closed position with the trail feet free, and the cue will be "thru to a jete point."


Bombshell
The bombshell is certainly not a standardized figure, but it seems to include a floor ronde of either same footwork (split ronde) or opposite footwork (double ronde) in a sharp, explosive manner and perhaps with sharp rise and lowering. In a relatively developed form, the bombshell is a double reverse; split ronde; reverse fleckerl. Notice that the double reverse is danced with relatively high poise, the split ronde is explosive and lowered, and the fleckerl is again up and rapid – it's all very bombshelly.

The term bombshell is also used to refer only the split ronde part of the sequence. YouTube has a Japanese video that shows this. In the caption to the video, the double reverse is listed separately, and in this case the subsequent contra check to a rudolph ronde is labeled separately (again, an explosive combination).

In Kenji & Nobuko Shibata's The Vision, they have choreographed a still different bombshell. Here, we are in a highline DLC with trail feet free and in one measure, we recover R (W rec L) and ronde the lead leg CCW to BJO DRC, step back L (W fwd R) chkg / both turning RF sd & fwd R (W sd & bk L), sd & fwd L (W sd & bk R) to BJO DLC; Here, the "bombshell" is like a lady's double ronde. She steps forward to a lead-foot forward ronde, and the man steps back to a back ronde, just the mirror of a normal double ronde. We are using opposite footwork. We exit from the ronde with sharp syncopation, but the figure is certainly subdued compared to sequence described above.
In The Vision by Shibata we dance an open natural; outside spin; curving qk lk slo lk to CP DLC; right lunge roll to high line; bombshell; quick open rev; hover corte;




dingbat




If you would like to read articles on dance position, technique, styling, and specific dance rhythms, please visit the article TOC. Go beyond this site. Find other references on our Sources and Links pages.









Alphabetical Index to
Figures
and Technique
Dance
Figures
Dance
Articles
Dance
Search
Dance
Links
Dance
Home
Glossary of Terms
and Abbreviations
Fred Astaire
Album
Reader
Comments
Dance
Videos & Books
Sources Harold Sears
Home
Online since 2001 ©Harold and Meredith Sears, Boulder, CO, harold@rounddancing.net. All rights reserved.